The Endoplasmic Reticulum
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (Figure) is a series of interconnected membranous sacs and tubules that collectively modifies proteins and synthesizes lipids. However, these two functions take place in separate areas of the ER: the rough ER and the smooth ER, respectively.
We call the ER tubules' hollow portion the lumen or cisternal space. The ER's membrane, which is a phospholipid bilayer embedded with proteins, is continuous with the nuclear envelope.
Scientists have named the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) as such because the ribosomes attached to its cytoplasmic surface give it a studded appearance when viewing it through an electron microscope (Figure).
Ribosomes transfer their newly synthesized proteins into the RER's lumen where they undergo structural modifications, such as folding or acquiring side chains. These modified proteins incorporate into cellular membranes—the ER or the ER's or other organelles' membranes. The proteins can also secrete from the cell (such as protein hormones, enzymes). The RER also makes phospholipids for cellular membranes.
If the phospholipids or modified proteins are not destined to stay in the RER, they will reach their destinations via transport vesicles that bud from the RER’s membrane (Figure).
Since the RER is engaged in modifying proteins (such as enzymes, for example) that secrete from the cell, you would be correct in assuming that the RER is abundant in cells that secrete proteins. This is the case with liver cells, for example.
The smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) is continuous with the RER but has few or no ribosomes on its cytoplasmic surface (Figure). SER functions include synthesis of carbohydrates, lipids, and steroid hormones; detoxification of medications and poisons; and storing calcium ions.
In muscle cells, a specialized SER, the sarcoplasmic reticulum, is responsible for storing calcium ions that are needed to trigger the muscle cells' coordinated contractions.
Link to Learning
You can watch an excellent animation of the endomembrane system here. At the end of the animation, there is a short self-assessment.
CardiologistHeart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. This is primarily due to our sedentary lifestyle and our high trans-fat diets.
Heart failure is just one of many disabling heart conditions. Heart failure does not mean that the heart has stopped working. Rather, it means that the heart can’t pump with sufficient force to transport oxygenated blood to all the vital organs. Left untreated, heart failure can lead to kidney failure and other organ failure.
Cardiac muscle tissue comprises the heart's wall. Heart failure occurs when cardiac muscle cells' endoplasmic reticula do not function properly. As a result, an insufficient number of calcium ions are available to trigger a sufficient contractile force.
Cardiologists (cardi- = “heart”; -ologist = “one who studies”) are doctors who specialize in treating heart diseases, including heart failure. Cardiologists can diagnose heart failure via a physical examination, results from an electrocardiogram (ECG, a test that measures the heart's electrical activity), a chest X-ray to see whether the heart is enlarged, and other tests. If the cardiologist diagnoses heart failure, he or she will typically prescribe appropriate medications and recommend a reduced table salt intake and a supervised exercise program.