Few would deny that today’s college students are under a lot of pressure. In addition to many usual stresses and strains incidental to the college experience (e.g., exams, term papers, and the dreaded freshman 15), students today are faced with increased college tuitions, burdensome debt, and difficulty finding employment after graduation. A significant population of non-traditional college students may face additional stressors, such as raising children or holding down a full-time job while working toward a degree.
Of course, life is filled with many additional challenges beyond those incurred in college or the workplace. We might have concerns with financial security, difficulties with friends or neighbors, family responsibilities, and we may not have enough time to do the things we want to do. Even minor hassles—losing things, traffic jams, and loss of internet service—all involve pressure and demands that can make life seem like a struggle and that can compromise our sense of well-being. That is, all can be stressful in some way.
Scientific interest in stress, including how we adapt and cope, has been longstanding in psychology; indeed, after nearly a century of research on the topic, much has been learned and many insights have been developed. This chapter examines stress and highlights our current understanding of the phenomenon, including its psychological and physiological natures, its causes and consequences, and the steps we can take to master stress rather than become its victim.
Section 2: References
Aboa-Éboulé, C., Brisson, C., Maunsell, E., Mâsse, B., Bourbonnais, R., Vézina, M., . . . Dagenais, G. R. (2007). Job strain and risk for acute recurrent coronary heart disease events. Journal of the American Medical Association, 298, 1652–1660.
Abramson, L. Y., Seligman, M. E. P., & Teasdale, J. D. (1978). Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 49–74.
Ader, R. & Cohen, N. (2001). Conditioning and immunity. In R. Ader, D. L. Felten & N. Cohen (Eds.), Psychoneuroimmunology (3rd ed., pp. 3–34). New York, NY: Academic Press.
Ader, R., & Cohen, N. (1975). Behaviorally conditioned immunosuppression. Psychosomatic Medicine, 37, 333–340.
Ahola, K., Honkonen, T., Isometsä, E., Kalimo, R., Nykyri, E., Aromaa, A., & Lönnqvist, J. (2005). The relationship between job-related burnout and depressive disorders—Results from the Finnish Health 2000 study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 88, 55–62.
Ahola, K., Honkonen, T., Kivamäki, M., Virtanen, M., Isometsä, E., Aromaa, A., & Lönnqvist, J. (2006). Contribution of burnout to the association between job strain and depression: The Health 2000 study. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 48, 1023–1030.
Alexander, F. (1950). Psychosomatic medicine. New York, NY: Norton.
American Academy of Neurology. (2014). Headache. Retrieved from https://patients.aan.com/disorders/index.cfm?event=view&disorder_id=936
American Heart Association. (2012a). What is angina? Retrieved from http://www.heart.org/idc/groups/heart-public/@wcm/@hcm/documents/downloadable/ucm_300287.pdf
American Heart Association. (2012b). Why blood pressure matters. Retrieved from http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HighBloodPressure/ WhyBloodPressureMatters/Why-Blood-Pressure-Matters_UCM_002051_Article.jsp
American Heart Association. (2014, February 24). Depression as a risk factor for poor prognosis among patients with acute coronary syndrome: Systematic review and recommendations: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. Retrieved from http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/early/2014/02/24/CIR.0000000000000019.full.pdf+html
American Lung Association. (2010). Asthma. Retrieved from http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/publications/solddc-chapters/asthma.pdf
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V. S. Ramachandran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71–81). New York, NY: Academic Press.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: Freeman.
Bandura, A. (2004). Health promotion by social cognitive means. Health Education & Behavior, 31, 143–164.
Barefoot, J. C., & Schroll, M. S. (1996). Symptoms of depression, acute myocardial infarction, and total mortality in a community sample. Circulation, 93, 1976–1980.
Baron, R. S., & Kerr, N. L. (2003). Group process, group decision, group action (2nd ed.). Berkshire, United Kingdom: Open University Press.
Baron, R. S., Cutrona, C. E., Hicklin, D., Russell, D. W., & Lubaroff, D. M. (1990). Social support and immune function among spouses of cancer patients. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 344–352.
Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497–529.
Benson, H., & Proctor, W. (1994). Beyond the relaxation response: How to harness the healing power of your personal beliefs. East Rutherford, NJ: Berkley Publishing Group.
Berkman, L. F., & Syme, L. (1979). Social networks, host resistance, and mortality: A nine-year follow-up study of Alameda County residents. American Journal of Epidemiology, 109, 186–204.
Blackburn, E. H., & Epel, E. S. (2012). Telomeres and adversity: Too toxic to ignore. Nature, 490(7419), 169–171.
Boehm, J. K., & Kubzansky, L. D. (2012). The heart’s content: The association between positive psychological well-being and cardiovascular health. Psychological Bulletin, 138, 655–691.
Bolger, N., DeLongis, A., Kessler, R. C., & Schilling, E. A. (1989). Effects of daily stress on negative mood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 808–818.
Boyle, S. H., Michalek, J. E., & Suarez, E. C. (2006). Covariation of psychological attributes and incident coronary heart disease in U.S. Air Force veterans of the Vietnam War. Psychosomatic Medicine, 68, 844–850.
Brickman, P., & Campbell, D. T. (1971). Hedonic relativism and planning the good society. In M. H. Appley (Ed.), Adaptation level theory: A symposium (pp. 287–302). New York, NY: Academic Press.
Brickman, P., Coats, D., & Janoff-Bulman, R. (1978). Lottery winners and accident victims: Is happiness relative? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 917–927.
Brondolo, E., Brady, N., Pencille, M., Beatty, D., & Contrada, R. J. (2009). Coping with racism: A selective review of the literature and a theoretical and methodological critique. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 32(1), 64–88.
Brummett, B. H., Barefoot, J. C., Siegler, I. C., Clapp-Channing, N. E., Lytle, B. L., Bosworth, H. B., . . . Mark, D. B. (2001). Characteristics of socially isolated patients with coronary artery disease who are at elevated risk for mortality. Psychosomatic Medicine, 63, 267–272.
Caceres, C., & Burns, J. W. (1997). Cardiovascular reactivity to psychological stress may enhance subsequent pain sensitivity. Pain, 69, 237–244.
Campeau, S., Nyhuis, T. J., Sasse, S. K., Kryskow, E. M., Herlihy, L., Masini, C. V., . . . Day, H. E. W. (2010). Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis responses to low-intensity stressors are reduced after voluntary wheel running in rats. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 22, 872–888.
Campisi, J., Bynog, P., McGehee, H., Oakland, J. C., Quirk, S., Taga, C., & Taylor, M. (2012). Facebook, stress, and incidence of upper respiratory infection in undergraduate college students. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15, 675–681.
Cannon, W. B. (1932). The wisdom of the body. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.
Carroll, J. (2007). Most Americans “very satisfied” with their personal lives. Retrieved from Gallup website: http://www.gallup.com/poll/103483/Most-Americans-Very-Satisfied-Their-Personal-Lives.aspx
Cathcart, S., Petkov, J., & Pritchard, D. (2008). Effects of induced stress on experimental pain sensitivity in chronic tension-type headache sufferers. European Journal of Neurology, 15, 552–558.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2006). You can control your asthma: A guide to understanding asthma and its triggers. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/asthma/pdfs/asthma_brochure.pdf
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2011). Million hearts: Strategies to reduce the prevalence of leading cardiovascular disease risk factors—United States, 2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report [MMWR], 60(36), 1248–1251. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm6036.pdf
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2013a). Asthma’s impact on the nation: Data from the CDC National Asthma Control Program. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/asthma/impacts_nation/AsthmaFactSheet.pdf
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2013b). Breathing easier. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/asthma/pdfs/breathing_easier_brochure.pdf
Center for Investigating Health Minds. (2013). About. Retrieved from http://www.investigatinghealthyminds.org/cihmCenter.html
Chandola, T., Britton, A., Brunner, E., Hemingway, H., Malik, M., Kumari, M., . . . Marmot, M. (2008). Work stress and coronary heart disease: What are the mechanisms? European Heart Journal, 29, 640–648.
Chang, E. C. (2001). Introduction: Optimism and pessimism and moving beyond the most fundamental questions. In E. C. Chang (Ed.), Optimism and pessimism: Implications for theory, research, and practice (pp. 3–12). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Chang, P. P., Ford, D. E., Meoni, L. A., Wang, N. Y., & Klag, M. J. (2002). Anger in young and subsequent premature cardiovascular disease. Archives of Internal Medicine, 162, 901–906.
Chida, Y., & Steptoe, A. (2009). The association of anger and hostility with future coronary heart disease: A meta-analytic review or prospective evidence. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 53, 936–946.
Cohen, S., Frank, E., Doyle, W. J., Skoner, D. P., Rabin, B. S., & Gwaltney, J. M. J. (1998). Types of stressors that increase susceptibility to the common cold in healthy adults. Health Psychology, 17, 214–223.
Cohen, S., & Herbert, T. B. (1996). Health psychology: Psychological factors and physical disease from the perspective of human psychoneuroimmunology. Annual Review of Psychology, 47, 113–142.
Cohen, S., & Janicki-Deverts, D. (2012). Who’s stressed? Distributions of psychological stress in the United States in probability samples in 1993, 2006, and 2009. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42, 1320–1334.
Cohen, S., Janicki-Deverts, D., & Miller, G. E. (2007). Psychological distress and disease. Journal of the American Medical Association, 98, 1685–1687.
Cohen, S., Doyle, W. J., Turner, R., Alper, C. M., & Skoner, D. P. (2003). Sociability and susceptibility to the common cold. Psychological Science, 14, 389–395.
Cohrs, J. C., Christie, D. J., White, M. P., & Das, C. (2013). Contributions of positive psychology to peace: Toward global well-being and resilience. American Psychologist, 68, 590–600.
Compton, W. C. (2005). An introduction to positive psychology. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Cotton, D. H. G. (1990). Stress management: An integrated approach to therapy. New York, NY: Brunner/Mazel.
Craft, L. L., VanIterson, E. H., Helenowski, I. B., Rademaker, A. W., & Courneya, K. S. (2012). Exercise effects on depressive symptoms in cancer survivors: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 21, 3–19.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1997). Finding flow. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1999). If we are so rich, why aren’t we happy? American Psychologist, 54, 821–827.
D’Amato, G., Liccardi, G., Cecchi, L., Pellegrino, F., & D’Amato, M. (2010). Facebook: A new trigger for asthma? The Lancet, 376, 1740.
Davidson, K. W., Mostofsky, E., & Whang, W. (2010). Don’t worry: be happy: Positive affect and reduced 10-year incident coronary heart disease: The Canadian Nova Scotia Health Survey. European Heart Journal, 31, 1065–1070.
de Kluizenaar, Y., Gansevoort, R. T., Miedema, H. M. E., & de Jong, P. E. (2007). Hypertension and road traffic noise exposure. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 49, 484–492.
De Vogli, R., Chandola, T., & Marmot, M. G. (2007). Negative aspects of close relationships and heart disease. Archives of Internal Medicine, 167, 1951–1957.
DeLongis, A., Coyne, J. C., Dakof, G., Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1982). Relationship of daily hassles, uplifts, and major life events to health status. Health Psychology, 1, 119–136.
Derogatis, L. R., & Coons, H. L. (1993). Self-report measures of stress. In L. Goldberger & S. Breznitz (Eds.), Handbook of stress: Theoretical and clinical aspects (2nd ed., pp. 200–233). New York, NY: Free Press.
Diehl, M., & Hay, E. L. (2010). Risk and resilience factors in coping with daily stress in adulthood: The role of age, self-concept incoherence, and personal control. Developmental Psychology, 46, 1132–1146.
Diener, E. (2012). New findings and future directions for subjective well-being research. American Psychologist, 67, 590–597.
Diener, E. (2013). The remarkable changes in the science of subjective well-being. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8, 663–666.
Diener, E., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2002). Will money increase subjective well-being? A literature review and guide to needed research. Social Indicators Research, 57, 119–169.
Diener, E., Diener, M., & Diener, C. (1995). Factors predicting the subjective well-being of nations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 851–864.
Diener, E., Lucas, R., & Scollon, C. N. (2006). Beyond the hedonic treadmill: Revising the adaptation theory of well-being. American Psychologist, 61, 305–314.
Diener, E., Ng, W., Harter, J., & Arora, R. (2010). Wealth and happiness across the world: Material prosperity predicts life evaluation, whereas psychosocial prosperity predicts positive feelings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99, 52–61.
Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Ryan, K. L. (2013). Universals and cultural differences in the causes and structure of happiness: A multilevel review. In Mental Well-Being (pp. 153–176). Springer Netherlands.
Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 276–302.
Diener, E., Tay, L., & Myers, D. (2011). The religion paradox: If religion makes people happy, why are so many dropping out? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 1278–1290.
Diener, E., Tay, L., & Oishi, S. (2013). Rising income and the subjective well-being of nations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104, 267–276.
Diener, E., Wolsic, B., & Fujita, F. (1995). Physical attractiveness and subjective well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 120–129.
Dohrenwend, B. P. (2006). Inventorying stressful life events as risk factors for psychopathology: Toward resolution of the problem of intracategory variability. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 477–495.
Entringer, S., Epel, E. S., Kumsta, R., Lin, J., Hellhammer, D. H., Blackburn, E., Wüst, S., & Wadhwa, P. D. (2011). Stress exposure in intrauterine life is associated with shorter telomere length in young adulthood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 108, E513–E518.
Epel, E. S., Blackburn, E. H., Lin, J., Dhabhar, F. S., Adler, N. E., Morrow, J. D., & Cawthon, R. M. (2004). Accelerated telomere shortening in response to life stress. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 101, 17312–17315.
Everly, G. S., & Lating, J. M. (2002). A clinical guide to the treatment of the human stress response (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishing.
Falagas, M. E., Zarkadoulia, E. A., Ioannidou, E. N., Peppas, G., Christodoulou, C., & Rafailidis, P. I. (2007). The effect of psychosocial factors on breast cancer outcome: A systematic review. Breast Cancer Research, 9:R44. Retrieved from http://breast-cancer-research.com/content/pdf/bcr1744.pdf
Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1980). An analysis of coping in a middle-aged community sample. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 21, 219–239.
Fontana, A. M., Diegnan, T., Villeneuve, A., & Lepore, S. J. (1999). Nonevaluative social support reduces cardiovascular reactivity in young women during acutely stressful performance situations. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 22, 75–91.
Friedman, H. S., & Booth-Kewley, S. (1987). The “disease-prone personality”: A meta-analytic view of the construct. American Psychologist, 42, 539–555.
Friedman, M. (1977). Type A behavior pattern: Some of its pathophysiological components. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 53, 593–604.
Friedman, M., & Rosenman, R. (1974). Type A behavior and your heart. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf.
Friedman, M., & Rosenman, R. H. (1959). Association of specific overt behavior pattern with blood and cardiovascular findings blood cholesterol level, blood clotting time, incidence of arcus senilis, and clinical coronary artery disease. Journal of the American Medical Association, 169(12), 1286–1296.
Fujita, F., & Diener, E. (2005). Life satisfaction set point: Stability and change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 158–164.
Fulmer, C. A., Gelfand, M. J., Kruglanski, A., Kim-Prieto, C., Diener, E., Pierro, A., & Higgins, E. T. (2010). On “feeling right” in cultural contexts: How person-culture match affects self-esteem and subjective well-being. Psychological Science, 21, 1563–1569.
Geoffroy, M. C., Hertzman, C., Li, L., & Power, C. (2013). Prospective association of morning salivary cortisol with depressive symptoms in mid-life: A life-course study. PLoS ONE, 8(11), 1–9.
Gerber, M., Kellman, M., Hartman, T., & Pühse, U. (2010). Do exercise and fitness buffer against stress among Swiss police and emergency response service officers? Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11, 286–294.
Glaser, R., & Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. (2005). Stress-induced immune dysfunction: Implications for health. Nature Reviews Immunology, 5, 243–251.
Glaser, R., Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Marucha, P. T., MacCallum, R. C., Laskowski, B. F., & Malarkey, W. B. (1999). Stress-related changes in proinflammatory cytokine production in wounds. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 450–456.
Glassman, A. H. (2007). Depression and cardiovascular comorbidity. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 9, 9–17.
Glassman, A. H., & Shapiro, P. A. (1998). Depression and the course of coronary artery disease. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 4–11.
Greenberg, J. S. (2006). Comprehensive stress management (9th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
Gregoire, C. (2013, June 5). Happiness index: Only 1 in 3 Americans are very happy, according to Harris Poll. The Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/06/01/happiness-index-only-1-in_n_3354524.html
Hackney, C. H., & Sanders, G. S. (2003). Religiosity and mental health: A meta-analysis of recent studies. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42, 43–55.
Hansen, T. (2012). Parenthood and happiness: A review of folk theories versus empirical evidence. Social Indicators Research, 108, 29–64.
Hare, D. L., Toukhsati, S. R., Johansson, P., & Jaarsma, T. (2013). Depression and cardiovascular disease: A clinical review. European Heart Journal. Advance online publication. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/eht462
Hatch, S. L., & Dohrenwend, B. P. (2007). Distribution of traumatic and other stressful life events by race/ethnicity, gender, SES, and age: A review of the research. American Journal of Community Psychology, 40, 313–332.
Haynes, S. G., Feinleib, M., & Kannel, W. B. (1980). The relationship of psychosocial factors to coronary disease in the Framingham study: III. Eight-year incidence of coronary heart disease. American Journal of Epidemiology, 111, 37–58.
Head, D., Singh, T., & Bugg, J. M. (2012). The moderating role of exercise on stress-related effects on the hippocampus and memory in later adulthood. Neuropsychology, 26, 133–143.
Helliwell, J., Layard, R., & Sachs, J. (Eds.). (2013). World happiness report 2013. Retrieved from United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network: http://unsdsn.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/WorldHappinessReport2013_online.pdf
Helson, H. (1964). Current trends and issues in adaptation-level theory. American Psychologist, 19, 26–38.
Holmes, T. H., & Masuda, M. (1974). Life change and illness susceptibility. In B. S. Dohrenwend & B. P. Dohrenwend (Eds.), Stressful life events: Their nature and effects (pp. 45–72). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Holmes, T. H., & Rahe, R. H. (1967). The social readjustment rating scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 11, 213–218.
Holmes, T. S., & Holmes, T. H. (1970). Short-term intrusions into the life style routine. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 14, 121–132.
Holt-Lunstad, J., Smith, T. B., & Layton, J. B. (2010). Social relationships and mortality risk: A meta-analytic review. PLoS Medicine, 7(7), e1000316.
Hupbach, A., & Fieman, R. (2012). Moderate stress enhances immediate and delayed retrieval of educationally relevant material in healthy young men. Behavioral Neuroscience, 126, 819–825.
Infurna, F. J., & Gerstorf, D. (2014). Perceived control relates to better functional health and lower cardio-metabolic risk: The mediating role of physical activity. Health Psychology, 33, 85–94.
Infurna, F. J., Gerstorf, D., Ram, N., Schupp, J., & Wagner, G. G. (2011). Long-term antecedents and outcomes of perceived control. Psychology and Aging, 26, 559–575.
Johnson, W., & Krueger, R. F. (2006). How money buys happiness: Genetic and environmental processes linking finances and life satisfaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 680–691.
Jonas, B. S., & Lando, J. F. (2000). Negative affect as a prospective risk factor for hypertension. Psychosomatic Medicine, 62, 188–196.
Jordan, H. T., Miller-Archie, S. A., Cone, J. E., Morabia, A., & Stellman, S. D. (2011). Heart disease among those exposed to the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center disaster: Results from the World Trade Center Health Registry. Preventive Medicine: An International Journal Devoted to Practice and Theory, 53, 370–376.
Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking fast and slow. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus, & Giroux.
Kahneman, D., & Deaton, A. (2010). High income improves evaluation of life, but not emotional well-being. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 107, 16489–16493.
Kanner, A. D., Coyne, J. C., Schaefer, C., & Lazarus, R. S. (1981). Comparison of two modes of stress measurement: Daily hassles and uplifts versus major life events. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 4, 1–39.
Karasek, R., & Theorell, T. (1990). Healthy work: Stress, productivity, and the reconstruction of working life. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. (2009). Psychoneuroimmunology: Psychology’s gateway to the biomedical future. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4, 367–369.
Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Glaser, R., Gravenstein, S., Malarkey, W. B., & Sheridan, J., (1996). Chronic stress alters the immune response to influenza virus vaccine in older adults. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 93, 3043–3047.
Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., McGuire, L., Robles, T. F., & Glaser, R. (2002). Psychoneuroimmunology and psychosomatic medicine: Back to the future. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64, 15–28.
Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., McGuire, L., Robles, T. F., & Glaser, R. (2002).Psychoneuroimmunology: Psychological influences on immune function and health. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 537–547.
Kilpeläinen, M., Koskenvuo, M., Helenius, H., & Terho, E. O. (2002). Stressful life events promote the manifestation of asthma and atopic diseases. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 32, 256–263.
Kivimäki, M., Head, J., Ferrie, J. E., Shipley, M. J., Brunner, E., Vahtera, J., & Marmot, M. G. (2006). Work stress, weight gain and weight loss. Evidence for bidirectional effects of body mass index in the Whitehall II study. International Journal of Obesity, 30, 982–987.
Klinnert, M. D., Nelson, H. S., Price, M. R., Adinoff, A. D., Leung, M., & Mrazek, D. A. (2001). Onset and persistence of childhood asthma: Predictors from infancy. Pediatrics, 108, E69.
Kraus, M. W., Piff, P. K., Mendoza-Denton, R., Rheinschmidt, M. L., & Keltner, D. (2012). Social class, solipsism, and contextualism: How the rich are different from the poor. Psychological Review, 119, 546–572.
Krosnick, J. A. (1990). Thinking about politics: Comparisons of experts and novices. New York, NY: Guilford.
Krumboltz, M. (2014, February 18). Just like us? Elephants comfort each other when they’re stressed out. Yahoo News. Retrieved from http://news.yahoo.com/elephants-know-a-thing-or-two-about-empathy-202224477.html
Lachman, M. E., & Weaver, S. L. (1998). The sense of control as a moderator of social class differences in health and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 763–773.
Lavner, J. A., Karney, B. R., & Bradbury, T. N. (2013). Newlyweds’ optimistic forecasts of their marriage: For better or for worse? Journal of Family Psychology, 27, 531–540.
Lazarus, R. P., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York, NY: Springer.
Lee, M., & Rotheram-Borus, M. J. (2001). Challenges associated with increased survival among parents living with HIV. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 1303–1309.
Lehrer, P. M., Isenberg, S., & Hochron, S. M. (1993). Asthma and emotion: A review. Journal of Asthma, 30, 5–21.
Lepore, S. J. (1998). Problems and prospects for the social support-reactivity hypothesis. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 20, 257–269.
Lichtman, J. H., Bigger, T., Blumenthal, J. A., Frasure-Smith, N., Kaufmann, P. G., Lespérance, F., . . . Froelicher, E. S. (2008). Depression and coronary heart disease: Recommendations for screening, referral, and treatment: A science advisory from the American Heart Association Prevention Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Nursing, Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and Interdisciplinary Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research. Circulation, 118, 1768–1775.
Loerbroks, A., Apfelbacher, C. J., Thayer, J. F., Debling, D., & Stürmer, T. (2009). Neuroticism, extraversion, stressful life events and asthma: A cohort study of middle-aged adults. Allergy, 64, 1444–1450.
Logan H., Lutgendorf, S., Rainville, P., Sheffield, D., Iverson, K., & Lubaroff, D. (2001). Effects of stress and relaxation on capsaicin-induced pain. The Journal of Pain, 2, 160–170.
Lutter, M. (2007). Book review: Winning a lottery brings no happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies, 8, 155–160.
Lyon, B. L. (2012). Stress, coping, and health. In V. H. Rice (Ed.), Handbook of stress, coping, and health: Implications for nursing research, theory, and practice (2nd ed., pp. 2–20). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Lyubomirsky, S. (2001). Why are some people happier than others? The role of cognitive and motivational processes in well-being. American Psychologist, 56, 239–249.
Lyubomirsky, S., King, L., & Diener, E. (2005). The benefits of frequent positive affect: Does happiness lead to success? Psychological Bulletin, 131, 803–855.
Maier, S. F., Watkins, L. R., & Fleshner, M. (1994). Psychoneuroimmunology: The interface between behavior, brain, and immunity. American Journal of Psychology 49(12), 1004–1017.
Malzberg, B. (1937). Mortality among patients with involution melancholia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 93, 1231–1238.
Marmot, M. G., Bosma, H., Hemingway, H., & Stansfeld, S. (1997). Contribution of job control and other risk factors to social variations in coronary heart disease incidence. The Lancet, 350, 235–239.
Martin, M. W. (2012). Happiness and the good life. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1981). The measurement of experienced burnout. Journal of Occupational Behavior, 2, 99–113.
McEwan, B. (1998). Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators. New England Journal of Medicine, 338(3), 171–179.
McIntosh, J. (2014, July 28) What are headaches? What causes headaches? Medical News Today. Retrieved from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/73936.php
MedicineNet. (2013). Headaches. Retrieved from http://www.medicinenet.com/tension_headache/article.htm#what_causes_tension_headaches
Monat, A., & Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Stress and coping: An anthology (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Myers, D. G. (2000). The funds, friends, and faith of happy people. American Psychologist, 55, 56–67.
Myers, T. C., Wittrock, D. A., & Foreman, G. W., (1998). Appraisal of subjective stress in individuals with tension-type headache: The influence of baseline measures. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 21, 469–484.
Mykletun, A., Bjerkeset, O., Dewey, M., Prince, M., Overland, S., & Stewart, R. (2007). Anxiety, depression, and cause-speciﬁc mortality: The HUNT study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69, 323–331.
Myrtek, M. (2001). Meta-analyses of prospective studies on coronary heart disease, type A personality, and hostility. International Journal of Cardiology, 79, 245–251.
Nabi, H., Kivimaki, M., De Vogli, R., Marmot, M. G., & Singh-Manoux, A. (2008). Positive and negative affect and risk of coronary heart disease: Whitehall II prospective cohort study. British Medical Journal, 337, a118.
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS). (2012). Understanding autoimmune diseases. Retrieved from http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Autoimmune/understanding_autoimmune.pdf
Nealey-Moore, J. B., Smith, T. W., Uchino, B. N., Hawkins, M. W., & Olson-Cerny, C. (2007). Cardiovascular reactivity during positive and negative marital interactions. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 30, 505–519.
Neelakantan, S. (2013). Mind over myocardium. Nature, 493, S16–S17.
Neupert, S. D., Almeida, D. M., & Charles, S. T. (2007). Age differences in reactivity to daily stressors: The role of personal control. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 62B, P216–P225.
Nusair, M., Al-dadah, A., & Kumar, A. (2012). The tale of mind and heart: Psychiatric disorders and coronary heart disease. Missouri Medicine, 109, 199–203.
Office on Women’s Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2009). Heart disease: Frequently asked questions. Retrieved from http://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/fact-sheet/heart-disease.pdf
Ong, A. D., Bergeman, C. S., & Bisconti, T. L. (2005). Unique effects of daily perceived control on anxiety symptomatology during conjugal bereavement. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 1057–1067.
Ösby, U., Brandt, L., Correia, N., Ekbom, A., & Sparén, P. (2001). Excess mortality in bipolar and unipolar depression in Sweden. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 844–850.
Park, S. G., Kim, H. C., Min, J. Y., Hwang, S. H., Park, Y. S., & Min, K. B. (2011). A prospective study of work stressors and the common cold. Occupational Medicine, 61, 53–56.
Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1984). Causal explanations as a risk factor for depression: Theory and evidence. Psychological Review, 91, 347–374.
Peterson, C., & Steen, T. A. (2002). Optimistic explanatory style. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 244–256). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Phillips, A. C. (2011). Blunted as well as exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity to stress is associated with negative health outcomes. Japanese Psychological Research, 53, 177–192.
Phillips, A. C., Gallagher, S., & Carroll, D. (2009). Social support, social intimacy, and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 37, 38–45.
Pinquart, M., & Sörensen, S. (2000). Influence of socioeconomic status, social network, and competence on subjective well-being in later life. A meta-analysis. Psychology and Aging, 15, 187–224.
Ploubidis, G. B., & Grundy, E. (2009). Personality and all cause mortality: Evidence for indirect links. Personality and Individual differences, 47, 203–208.
Powell, J. (1996). AIDS and HIV-related diseases: An educational guide for professionals and the public. New York, NY: Insight Books.
Pressman, S. D., & Cohen, S. (2005). Does positive affect influence health? Psychological Bulletin, 131, 925–971.
Puterman, E., Lin, J., Blackburn, E., O’Donovan, A., Adler, N., & Epel, E. (2010). The power of exercise: Buffering the effect of chronic stress on telomere length. PLoS ONE, 5(5), e10837.
Quoidbach, J., Dunn, E. W., Petrides, K. V., & Mikolajczak, M. (2010). Money giveth, money taketh away: The dual effect of wealth on happiness. Psychological Science, 21, 759–763.
Rahe, R. H. (1974). The pathway between subjects’ recent life changes and their near-future illness reports: Representative results and methodological issues. In B. S. Dohrenwend & B. P. Dohrenwend (Eds.), Stressful life events: Their nature and effects (pp. 73–86). New York, NY: Wiley & Sons.
Rahe, R. H., McKeen, J. D., & Arthur, R. J. (1967). A longitudinal study of life change and illness patterns. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 10, 355–366.
Raney, J. D., & Troop-Gordon, W. (2012). Computer-mediated communication with distant friends: Relations with adjustment during students’ first semester in college. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104, 848–861.
Rasmussen, H. N., & Wallio, S. C. (2008). The health benefits of optimism. In S. J. Lopez (Ed.), Positive psychology: Exploring the best in people (pp. 131–149). Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Rasmussen, H. N., Scheier, M. F., & Greenhouse, J. B. (2009). Optimism and physical health: A meta-analytic review. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 37, 239–256.
Ritz, T., Steptoe, A., Bobb, C., Harris, A. H. S., & Edwards, M. (2006). The asthma trigger inventory: Validation of a questionnaire for perceived triggers of asthma. Psychosomatic Medicine, 68, 956–965.
Rosengren, A., Hawken, S., Ounpuu, S., Sliwa, K., Zubaid, M., Almahmeed, W. A., . . . Yusuf, S. (2004). Association of psychosocial risk factors with risk of acute myocardial infarction in 11,119 cases and 13,648 controls from 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): Case-control study. The Lancet, 364, 953–962.
Rosenman, R. H., Brand, R. J., Jenkins, C. D., Friedman, M., Straus, R., & Wurm, M. (1975). Coronary heart disease in the Western Collaborative Group Study: Final follow-up experience of 8.5 years. Journal of the American Medical Association, 223, 872–877.
Rottenberg, J., Yaroslavsky, I., Carney, R. M., Freedland, K. E., George, C. J., Baki, I., Kovacs, M. (2014). The association between major depressive disorder and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adolescence. Psychosomatic Medicine, 76, 122–127.
Salmon, P. (2001). Effects of physical exercise on anxiety, depression, and sensitivity to stress: A unifying theory. Clinical Psychology Review, 21, 33–61.
Saito, K., Kim, J. I., Maekawa, K., Ikeda, Y., & Yokoyama, M. (1997). The great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake aggravates blood pressure control in treated hypertensive patients. American Journal of Hypertension, 10, 217–221.
Salonen, P., Arola, H., Nygård, C., & Huhtala, H. (2008). Long-term associations of stress and chronic diseases in ageing and retired employees. Psychology, Health, and Medicine, 13, 55–62.
Sapolsky, R. M. (1998). Why zebras don’t get ulcers: An updated guide to stress, stress-related disease, and coping. New York, NY: Freeman.
Sapolsky, R. M. (2004). Organismal stress and telomeric aging. An unexpected connection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 101, 17323–17324.
Schnall, P. L., & Landsbergis, P. A. (1994). Job strain and cardiovascular disease. Annual Review of Public Health, 15, 381–411.
Schwartz, B. S., Stewart, W. F., Simon, D., & Lipton, R. B. (1998). Epidemiology of tension-type headache. Journal of the American Medical Association, 279, 381–383.
Schwartz, N. M., & Schwartz, M. S. (1995). Definitions of biofeedback and applied physiology. In M. S. Schwartz & F. Andrasik (Eds.), Biofeedback: A practitioners guide (pp. 32–42). New York, NY: Guilford.
Scully, J. A., Tosi, H., & Banning, K. (2000). Life event checklists: Revisiting the Social Readjustment Rating Scale after 30 years. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 60, 864–876.
Segerstrom, S. C., & Miller, G. E. (2004). Psychological stress and the human immune system: A meta-analytic study of 30 years of inquiry. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 601–630.
Seligman, M. E., & Maier, S. F. (1967). Failure to escape traumatic shock. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 74, 1–9.
Seligman, M. E., Maier, S. F., & Geer, J. H. (1968). Alleviation of learned helplessness in the dog. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 3, 256–262.
Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Authentic happiness: Using the new positive psychology to realize your potential for lasting fulfillment. New York, NY: Free Press.
Seligman, M. E. P., Steen, T. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist, 60, 410–421.
Seligman, M. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55, 5–14.
Selye, H. (1936). A syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents. Nature, 138, 32–33.
Selye, H. (1974). Stress without distress. Philadelphia, PA: Lippencott.
Selye, H. (1976). The stress of life (Rev. ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Shalev, I., Moffitt, T. E., Sugden, K., Williams, B., Houts, R. M., Danese, A., . . . Caspi, A. (2013). Exposure to violence during childhood is associated with telomere erosion from 5 to 10 years of age: A longitudinal study. Molecular Psychiatry, 18, 576–581.
Shapiro, P. A. (2005). Heart disease. In J. L. Levenson (Ed.), Textbook of psychosomatic medicine (pp. 423–444). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Sims, M., Diez-Roux, A. V., Dudley, A., Gebreab, S., Wyatt, S. B., Bruce, M. A., . . . Taylor, H. A. (2012). Perceived discrimination and hypertension among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study [Supplemental material]. American Journal of Public Health, 102(2 Suppl.), S258–S265.
Smyth, J. M., Soefer, M. H., Hurewitz, A., Kliment, A., & Stone, A. A. (1999). Daily psychosocial factors predict levels and diurnal cycles of asthma symptomatology and peak flow. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 22, 179–193.
Sodergren, S. C., & Hyland, M. H. (1999). Expectancy and asthma. In I. Kirsch (Ed.), How expectancies shape experience (pp. 197–212). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Speck, R. M., Courneya, K. S., Masse, L. C., Duval, S., & Schmitz, K. H. (2010). An update of controlled physical activity trials in cancer survivors: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Cancer Survivorship, 4, 87–100.
Stansfeld, S. A., Shipley, M. J., Head, J., & Fuhrer, R. (2012). Repeated job strain and the risk of depression: Longitudinal analyses from the Whitehall II study. American Journal of Public Health, 102, 2360–2366.
Stein, F. (2001). Occupational stress, relaxation therapies, exercise, and biofeedback. Work: Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation, 17, 235–246.
Steptoe, A., O’Donnell, K., Marmot, M., & Wardle, J. (2008). Positive affect and psychosocial processes related to health. British Journal of Psychology, 99, 211–227.
Stovner, L. J., Hagen, K., Jensen, R., Katsarava, Z., Lipson, R., Scher, A., . . . Zwart, J. (2007). The global burden of headache: A documentation of headache prevalence and disability worldwide. Cephalalgia, 27, 193–210.
Straub, R. O. (2007). Health psychology: A biopsychosocial approach (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Worth.
Stroebe, W., & Stroebe, M. (1996). The social psychology of social support. In E. T. Higgins & A. W. Kruglanski (Eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles (pp. 597–621). New York, NY: Guilford.
Stürmer, T., Hasselbach, P., & Amelang, M. (2006). Personality, lifestyle, and risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer: Follow-up of population based cohort. British Medical Journal, 332, 1359–1362.
Suls, J., & Bunde, J. (2005). Anger, anxiety, and depression as risk factors for cardiovascular disease: The problems and implications of overlapping affective dispositions. Psychological Bulletin, 131, 260–300.
Sulsky, L., & Smith, C. (2005). Work stress. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Surtees, P. G., Wainwright, N. W. J., Luben, R., Wareham, N. J., Bingham, S. A., & Khaw, K.-T. (2010). Mastery is associated with cardiovascular disease mortality in men and women at apparently low risk. Health Psychology, 29, 412–420.
Tatris, T. W., Peeters, M. C. W., Le Blanc, P. M., Schreurs, P. J. G., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). From inequity to burnout: The role of job stress. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6, 303–323.
Taylor, S. E. (1999). Health psychology (4th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
Theorell, T., Tsutsumi, A., Hallquist, J., Reuterwall, C., Hogstedt, C., Fredlund, P., . . . Johnson, J. V. (1998). Decision latitude, job strain, and myocardial infarction: A study of working men in Stockholm. American Journal of Public Health, 88, 382–388.
Thoits, P. A. (2010). Stress and health: Major findings and policy implications [Supplemental material]. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 51(1 Suppl.), S41–S53.
Trudel, X., Brisson, C., & Milot, A. (2010). Job strain and masked hypertension. Psychosomatic Medicine, 72, 786–793.
Trueba, A. F., & Ritz, T. (2013). Stress, asthma, and respiratory infections: Pathways involving airway immunology and microbal endocrinology. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 29, 11–27.
Uchino, B. N. (2009). Understanding the links between social support and physical health: A life-span perspective with emphasis on the separability of perceived and received support. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4, 236–255.
Uchino, B. N., Vaughn, A. A., Carlisle, M., & Birmingham, W. (2012). Social support and immunity. In S. C. Segerstrom (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of psychoneuroimmunology (pp. 214–233). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Ukestad, L. K., and Wittrock, D. A. (1996). Pain perception and coping in recurrent headache. Health Psychology, 15, 65–68.
Vella, E. J., Kamarck, T. W., Flory, J. D., & Manuck, S. (2012). Hostile mood and social strain during daily life: A test of the transactional model. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 44, 341–352.
von Leupoldt, A., Ehnes, F., & Dahme, B. (2006). Emotions and respiratory function in asthma: A comparison of findings in everyday life and laboratory. British Journal of Health Psychology, 11, 185–198.
Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070.
Weeke, A. (1979). Causes of death in manic-depressive. In M. Shou & M. Stromgren (Eds.), Origin, prevention, and treatment of affective disorders (pp. 289–299). London, England: Academic Press.
Whang, W., Kubzansky, L. D., Kawachi, I., Rexrod, K. M., Kroenke, C. H., Glynn, R. J., . . . Albert, C. M. (2009). Depression and risk of sudden cardiac death and coronary heart disease in women: Results from the Nurses’ Health Study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 53, 950–958.
Wilson, T. D., & Gilbert, D. T. (2003). Affective forecasting. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 35, 345–411.
World Health Organization (WHO). (2013). A global brief on hypertension: Silent killer, global public health crisis. Retrieved from http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/79059/1/WHO_DCO_WHD_2013.2_eng.pdf?ua=1
Wright, R. J., Rodriguez, M., & Cohen, S. (1998). Review of psychosocial stress and asthma: An integrated biopsychosocial approach. Thorax, 53, 1066–1074.
Wulsin, L. R., & Singal, B. M. (2003). Do depressive symptoms increase the risk for the onset of coronary disease? A systematic quantitative review. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 201–210.
Zacharie, R. (2009). Psychoneuroimmunology: A bio-psycho-social approach to health and disease. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 50, 645–651.