Campaigns and Voting

Susan is currently working two part-time jobs and is frustrated about the poor economy. On Election Day, she votes for every challenger on the ballot, because she feels the president and Congress are not doing enough to help her. What type of vote did she cast?

  1. retrospective
  2. prospective
  3. pocketbook
  4. straight ticket

Which factor is most likely to lead to the incumbency advantage for a candidate?

  1. candidate’s socioeconomic status
  2. gerrymandering of the candidate’s district
  3. media’s support of the candidate
  4. candidate’s political party



In what ways is voting your party identification an informed choice? In what ways is it lazy?

Do physical characteristics matter when voters assess candidates? If so, how?


Voters tend to vote for candidates who look attractive and competent. They may consider race, gender, height, weight, and other physical attributes.