Presidential Governance: Direct Presidential Action

The passage of the Tenure of Office Act of 1867 was just one instance in a long line of ________.

  1. struggles for power between the president and the Congress
  2. unconstitutional presidential power grabbing
  3. impeachment trials
  4. arguments over presidential policy

Which of the following is an example of an executive agreement?

  1. The president negotiates an agreement with China and submits it to the Senate for ratification.
  2. The president changes a regulation on undocumented immigrant status without congressional approval.
  3. The president signs legally binding nuclear arms terms with Iran without seeking congressional approval.
  4. The president issues recommendations to the Department of Justice on what the meaning of a new criminal statute is.



How have the methods presidents use to negotiate with their party and the opposition changed over time?

What strategies can presidents employ to win people over to their way of thinking?


Presidents can use road trips across the country, major speeches, and rewards to people in their camp. Historically, however, these techniques have only rarely been successful. What works best is for a president find a popular position to get out in front of.