Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree

Free Response

Compare three different ways that eukaryotic cells may have evolved.


Some hypotheses propose that mitochondria were acquired first, followed by the development of the nucleus. Others propose that the nucleus evolved first and that this new eukaryotic cell later acquired the mitochondria. Still others hypothesize that prokaryotes descended from eukaryotes by the loss of genes and complexity.

Describe how aphids acquired the ability to change color.


Aphids have acquired the ability to make the carotenoids on their own. DNA analysis has demonstrated that this ability is due to the transfer of fungal genes into the insect by HGT, presumably as the insect consumed fungi for food.