Mammals

Evolution of Mammals

Mammals are synapsids, meaning they have a single, ancestrally fused, postorbital opening in the skull. They are the only living synapsids, as earlier forms became extinct by the Jurassic period. The early non-mammalian synapsids can be divided into two groups, the pelycosaurs and the therapsids. Within the therapsids, a group called the cynodonts are thought to have been the ancestors of mammals (Figure).

The illustration shows an animal resembling a short-haired dog.
Cynodont. Cynodonts ("dog teeth"), which first appeared in the Late Permian period 260 million years ago, are thought to be the ancestors of modern mammals. Holes in the upper jaws of cynodonts suggest that they had whiskers, which might also indicate the presence of hair. (credit: Nobu Tamura)

As with birds, a key characteristic of synapsids is endothermy, rather than the ectothermy seen in many other vertebrates (such as fish, amphibians, and most reptiles). The increased metabolic rate required to internally modify body temperature likely went hand-in-hand with changes to certain skeletal structures that improved food processing and ambulation. The later synapsids, which had more evolved characteristics unique to mammals, possess cheeks for holding food and heterodont teeth, which are specialized for chewing, mechanically breaking down food to speed digestion, and releasing the energy needed to produce heat. Chewing also requires the ability to breathe at the same time, which is facilitated by the presence of a secondary palate (comprising the bony palate and the posterior continuation of the soft palate). The secondary palate separates the area of the mouth where chewing occurs from the area above where respiration occurs, allowing breathing to proceed uninterrupted while the animal is chewing. A secondary palate is not found in pelycosaurs but is present in cynodonts and mammals. The jawbone also shows changes from early synapsids to later ones. The zygomatic arch, or cheekbone, is present in mammals and advanced therapsids such as cynodonts, but is not present in pelycosaurs. The presence of the zygomatic arch suggests the presence of masseter muscles, which close the jaw and function in chewing.

In the appendicular skeleton, the shoulder girdle of therian mammals is modified from that of other vertebrates in that it does not possess a procoracoid bone or an interclavicle, and the scapula is the dominant bone.

Mammals evolved from therapsids in the late Triassic period, as the earliest known mammal fossils are from the early Jurassic period, some 205 million years ago. One group of transitional mammals was the morganucodonts, small nocturnal insectivores. The jaws of morganucodonts were “transitional,” with features of both reptilian and mammalian jaws (Figure). Like modern mammals, the morganucodonts had differentiated teeth and were diphyodonts. Mammals first began to diversify in the Mesozoic era, from the Jurassic to the Cretaceous periods. Even some small gliding mammals appear in the fossil record during this time period. However, most of the Jurassic mammals were extinct by the end of the Mesozoic. During the Cretaceous period, another radiation of mammals began and continued through the Cenozoic era, about 65 million years ago.

A morganucodont. This morganucodont Megazotrodon, an extinct basal mammal, may have been nocturnal and insectivorous. Inset: Jaw of a morganucodont, showing a double hinge, one between the dentary and squamosal and one between the articular (yellow) and quadrate (blue) bones. In living mammals, the articular and quadrate bones have been incorporated into the middle ear. (Credit: By Nordelch [Megazostrodon Natural History Museum] Wikimedia Commons. Credit inset: Mod from Philcha. https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php? curid=3631949)