Digestive Systems

Invertebrate Digestive Systems

Animals have evolved different types of digestive systems to aid in the digestion of the different foods they consume. The simplest example is that of a gastrovascular cavity and is found in organisms with only one opening for digestion. Platyhelminthes (flatworms), Ctenophora (comb jellies), and Cnidaria (coral, jelly fish, and sea anemones) use this type of digestion. Gastrovascular cavities, as shown in Figurea, are typically a blind tube or cavity with only one opening, the “mouth”, which also serves as an “anus”. Ingested material enters the mouth and passes through a hollow, tubular cavity. Cells within the cavity secrete digestive enzymes that breakdown the food. The food particles are engulfed by the cells lining the gastrovascular cavity.

The alimentary canal, shown in Figureb, is a more advanced system: it consists of one tube with a mouth at one end and an anus at the other. Earthworms are an example of an animal with an alimentary canal. Once the food is ingested through the mouth, it passes through the esophagus and is stored in an organ called the crop; then it passes into the gizzard where it is churned and digested. From the gizzard, the food passes through the intestine, the nutrients are absorbed, and the waste is eliminated as feces, called castings, through the anus.

Part A shows a hydra, which has a vase-shaped body with tentacles around the rim. The hydra’s mouth is located between the tentacles, at the top of the vase. Next to the hydra is a jellyfish medusa, which is bell shaped with tentacles hanging down from the edge of the bell. The mouth, in the lower middle part of the body, opens into the gastrovascular cavity. Part B shows a nematode, which has a long, tube-like body that is wide at one end and tapers down to a tail at the other. The mouth is in the center of the wide end. It opens into an esophagus, then a pharynx. The pharynx empties into a long intestine, which ends at the anus a short distance before the tail.
(a) A gastrovascular cavity has a single opening through which food is ingested and waste is excreted, as shown in this hydra and in this jellyfish medusa. (b) An alimentary canal has two openings: a mouth for ingesting food, and an anus for eliminating waste, as shown in this nematode.