Writing An Effective Conclusion

Writing An Effective Conclusion

Essay Conclusions


In the conclusion of an essay, you emphasize your central argument. Your first attempt at writing a good conclusion is a great time to learn if your argument is truly interesting and persuasive.

If you can make strong, thoughtful claims in the conclusion, especially claims that a reader wouldn’t understand or agree with without having read the rest of the paper, then you know your paper really made an argument.

If you find yourself with nothing to say in the conclusion, or only vague general statements that nobody could really disagree with, you need to go back and revise your analysis in your body paragraphs.

  • Look at the final paragraphs of the Sample Essay, “What Maslow Misses” and “Turn on, Log in, Wise up” with your teacher and discuss what each conclusion does or doesn’t do well.
  • Begin drafting the conclusion to your own essay.

Identifying Bias

Work Time

The Independent Research Workflow asks you to find an author’s bias when you annotate the articles you research individually.

Bias occurs when an author pushes a particular point of view in a one-sided way. It can occur even if an author is essentially correct, but hasn’t carefully considered all sides. There is usually an element of bias in most argument writing because an author’s main goal is to persuade. So your job, as an astute reader, is to identify moments at which an author is exhibiting bias so you can consider the arguments with impartial logic.

  • Review “What Maslow Misses” and “Turn on, Log in, Wise up” and add at least two annotations to each that identify a moment in which the author seems to exhibit bias.
  • Identify what information or perspective the author has ignored or unfairly pushed aside in order to make a more persuasive argument.
  • If you have time, also write sample bias statements for these two articles according to the directions in No. 4 of the Independent Research Workflow.

Open Notebook

Discussion of Bias Examples


Share your examples of bias with the rest of the class and discuss how the bias you see affects your perception of an article.

Use these questions to guide your discussion.

  • Does a biased argument make you distrust the author? Why or why not?
  • Obviously, an argument essay shouldn’t spend half its time explaining the merits of an opposing point of view. In your opinion, how much bias is too much?

Argument Essay Draft


  • Continue work on your essay, making sure you finish your conclusion. A full draft will be due in Lesson 14.