Author:
Mary Rowland
Subject:
Communication, English Language Arts, Composition and Rhetoric, Writing, Writing for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects
Material Type:
Bibliography, Reading, Student Guide
Level:
Middle School, High School
Grade:
7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
Tags:
  • Apa
  • Citation
  • Copyright
  • Evaluating Websites
  • Information Literacy
  • Inquiry
  • Inquiry Skills
  • Mla
  • Plagiarism
  • Research
  • Research Skills
    License:
    Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial
    Language:
    English
    Media Formats:
    eBook, Graphics/Photos, Text/HTML, Video

    INFOhio Citation Guide

    INFOhio Citation Guide

    Overview

    The INFOhio Citation Guide includes a variety of websites, tutorials, documents, and videos for grades 6-12 to support students as they cite sources and provide attribution for resources and images used during the research process.

    About the INFOhio Citation Guide

    The INFOhio Citation Guide is for students in grades 6-12 as they cite sources and provide attribution for resources and images used during the research process. It includes a variety of websites, videos, tutorials, and documents.

    How to Use This Citation Guide

    Review the Content

    This guide is a collection of materials to help educators and students learn how to properly cite sources, provide attribution, avoid plagiarism, and evaluate online resources. Educators should review all materials before sharing the INFOhio Citation Guide with students.

    Share the Student View

    Consider sharing a link to the Student View with students. A shareable link can be posted in a learning management system. 

    student view

     

    Disclaimer: This guide is a collection of instructional materials to help educators access resources supporting a subject or specific educational standards. Each item included in the guide is premium content licensed or purchased by INFOhio or an open access item that has been reviewed by educational professionals. Educators should review all materials before sharing with students.

    Cover image: Photo by StockSnap/Pixabay

    MLA and APA Format Guides

    What is a format guide?

    Different subject areas have different needs when it comes to citing sources and formatting essays. There are numerous different format styles. The most common format styles include the following. 

    • MLA (for arts and humanities)
    • APA (for social sciences)

    MLA and APA General Format Guides

    The table below includes links to style guides for MLA and APA. 

    MLA General Format Guide

    APA General Format Guide

    The official source for MLA style is the MLA Handbook by The Modern Language Association of America, 2016. For free, online information on using MLA style, see this resource.

    • Purdue OWL: MLA General Format: MLA Style specifies guidelines for formatting manuscripts and citing research in writing. MLA Style also provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through parenthetical citations in their essays and Works Cited pages. 

    * Read MLA 9th Edition Changes on Purdue Online Writing Lab to learn more about the differences between MLA 8th edition and MLA 9th edition. 

    The official source for APA style is the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association by American Psychological Association Staff, 2010. For free, online information on using APA style, see this resource. 

    • Purdue OWL: APA General Format: APA Style specifies guidelines for formatting manuscripts and citing research in writing. APA Style also provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through parenthetical citations in their Works Cited pages. 

       

       

      MLA and APA Citation Format

      Why cite your sources? 

      When you use outside sources for a project, you need to cite them. Your sources could be books, primary source documents, magazines or newspaper articles, and encyclopedia articles. They also may include videos, images, audio recordings, or websites. Below are three reasons why you should cite your sources.

      • Establish that you've used credible sources.
      • Help your readers to find your sources.
      • Give credit to people or ideas you have used.  

      Ask your teacher which citation format you should use in your research paper or project. Use the websites and videos linked below to help you create in-text citations and a Works Cited page. 

      MLA Citation Format

      APA Citation Format

      MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics: In MLA Style, referring to the works of others in your text is done using parenthetical citations. This method involves providing relevant source information in parentheses whenever a sentence uses a quotation or paraphrase. (from OWL Purdue University)

      Ask the MLA: Search a list of frequently asked questions about MLA format. (from MLA Style Center)

      MLA In-Text Citations Overview: Consult advice from MLA editors regarding the use and format for in-text citations. (from MLA Style Center)

      The Basics of MLA In-Text Citation: In this video, you'll learn what to include in an MLA in-text citation, where to place it in a sentence, and how to deal with missing information. (from Scribbr) 

      The Basics of MLA In-Text Citation

       

      APA In-Text Citation: The Basics: When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. (from OWL Purdue University)

      Six Steps to Proper Citation Infographic: APA Style 7th edition: This infographic provides six steps for including and citing other's work in your research. (from APA Style)

      In-Text Citation Checklist: Complete the following checklist for each sentence in your paper that relies on another source. (from APA Style)

      The Basics of APA In-Text Citation: This video will go through what to include in an APA in-text citation, where to place it in a sentence, and how to deal with missing information. (from Scribbr)

       

      The Basics of APA In-Text Citation

       

       

       

      Citation Tools

      How can citation tools help me cite my sources?

      Citation tools can autogenerate citations using the information provided by the source or the user. Be Careful! Autogenerated citations and citation generators can be very good, but treat them like you would a rough draft. Compare the autogenerated citations to the MLA Formatting and Style Guide or the APA Formatting and Style Guide

      Autogenerated Citations

      Many INFOhio resources automatically generate a citation for articles, videos, and eBooks. Below is a list of popular INFOhio resources for student researchers. For each resource, look at the image. Notice a button labeled Cite or Citation. Click it to get a rough draft of a citation. 

      Explora for Grades 9-12 and Explora for Grades 6-8

      Explora

      High School eBooks Collection (EBSCO)

      ebook

      Science Online

      science online

      World Book Advanced

      wba

      Citation Generators

      Citation generators use information about a source to generate a citation. The user provides information about the resource. Read Using Citation Generators Responsibly from Purdue Online Writing Lab to learn more. Research management platforms may include citation generators. Ask your teacher if your school provides you access to a research management platform. 

      World Book Student and World Book Advanced Citation Builder

      World Book Student and World Book Advanced provide students access to a citation builder. This citation builder is available to students at no cost. Use the screenshots below to learn how to use this tool. 

      To begin, click the green "Open" button to go to World Book Student or World Book Advanced.

      WBipage

      Locate the citation builder using the steps outlined in the images below.

      world book citation builder 1

      wb 2

      wb 3

      wb4

      Read the article, Citation Builder, from World Book Online to learn more about how to use this tool.

      Attribution vs. Citation

      What's the difference between attribution and citation? 

      You may find an image you want to use for your project online. Learn the difference between attribution and citation with this helpful guide Attribution vs. Citation

      AttributionCitation
      • The act of establishing a particular person as the creator of a work of art. 
      • Gives credit to images, text, and ideas.

      attribution

       

      • The act of acknowledging the work of another within a scholarly context. 
      • Used to trace the development of ideas through scholarly works and primary sources. 

       

      citation

       

       

       

      Identify and Avoid Plagiarism

      What is Plagiarism?

      If you don't cite the sources you use, that's considered plagiarism. Whether it's done on purpose or by accident, plagiarism is against the rules. This information will help you recognize plagiarism, so you can avoid it and its consequences.

      Online Plagiarism Resources

      Read the document Avoiding Plagiarism from EBSCO. 

      plagiarism
      Avoiding Plagiarism from EBSCO

      Watch the video below What is plagiarism and how to avoid it.

      What is plagiarism and how to avoid it

       

      Plagiarism Lessons in Research 4 Success

      Explore the following lessons in Research 4 Success to learn more about plagiarism.

       

       

      Learn About Copyright

      What is Copyright?

      Copyright is the exclusive legal right to print, publish, perform, film, or record literary, artistic, or musical material, and to authorize others to do the same.

      Online Copyright Resources

      Watch the video What is Copyright? Learn about what copyright involves, including what types of works are subject to copyright protection.

      What is Copyright?

       

      Review the infographic and visit Can I Use That Picture? for terms, laws, and ethics for using copyrighted images.

      copy

       

      Want to know what can't be copyrighted? See The Surprisingly Long List of Things That Can't Be Copyrighted

      copy

       

       

      Credits

      INFOhio Resources

      Kaitlyn McNamee. "APA/MLA Guidelines - 7th/8th Editions: A QuickStudy Digital Reference Guide." QuickStudy Reference Guides, eBook, High School Collection eBooks (EBSCO). 2020. Accessed 7 Sept. 2023

      High School Collection eBooks (EBSCO)

      Research 4 Success

      Open Access Resources

      Scribbr. "The Basics of MLA Citation." MLA Style and Formatting. YouTube, 2020. Accessed 7 Sept. 2023.

      Scribber. "The Basics of APA Citation. Easy Formatting for APA. YouTube, 2020. Accessed 7 Sept. 2023

      "Avoiding Plagiarism" EBSCO Connect, 2020. Accessed 7 Sept. 2023

      "What is plagiarism and how to avoid it." Brock University Library. YouTube, 2014. Accessed 7 Sept. 2023

      U.S. Copyright Office. "What is Copyright?" Copyright and Artificial Intelligence. YouTube, 2020. Accessed 7 Sept. 2023. 

      Newbold, Curtis. "The Surprising Long List of Things That Cannot Be Copyrighted #Infographic." Visualistan. Website, 14 Aug. 2016. Accessed 7 Sept. 2023

      Newbold, Curtis, "Can I use that? The terms laws and ethics for using copyrighted images." The Visual Communication Guy. Website, 14, July 2014. Accessed 7 Sept. 2023. 

      The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U, 2008, owl.english.purdue.edu/owl. Accessed 7 Sept. 2023

      Disclaimer: This content package is a collection of instructional materials to help educators access resources supporting a subject or specific educational standards. Each item included in the package is premium content licensed or purchased by INFOhio or an open access item that has been reviewed by educational professionals. Educators should review all materials before sharing with students.

      Last Updated: Sept. 2023