Students participate in an icebreaker activity, finding a classmate whose card contains …

Students participate in an icebreaker activity, finding a classmate whose card contains an expression equivalent to the expression on their own card. The resulting student pairs will be partners for this unit. Students spend time exploring the digital course. They learn new symbols for multiplication and detect possible errors in evaluating numeric expressions. The class discusses and decides upon norms for math class.Key ConceptsStudents evaluate numerical expressions and identify equivalent expressions. They explore why the order of operations affects calculation results and how to use parentheses to clearly describe the order of the operations.Goals and Learning ObjectivesEvaluate numerical expressions.Understand the reason for the order of operations and how to use parentheses in numerical expressions.Use the basic features of the application.Create and understand the classroom norms.Use mathematical reasoning to justify an answer.PreparationPrint out the Expressions Icebreaker cards. Select the number of pairs of Partner 1 and Partner 2 cards needed for your class. Shuffle the cards before distributing to students.Write on the board or chart paper: Find a classmate whose card has an expression that is equivalent to the expression on your card.Choose a hand signal or phrase for common activities, such as putting technology away and focusing on the teacher.

Students review the ways classroom habits and routines can strengthen their mathematical …

Students review the ways classroom habits and routines can strengthen their mathematical character. Students learn what a Gallery is and how to choose a Gallery problem to work on. They then choose one of three Gallery problems that introduce the unit’s technology resources. The three Gallery problems combine working with expressions with the resources available with this unit.Key ConceptsUnderstand that a Gallery gives students a choice of several problems. Understand what to consider when choosing a problem. Know how to work on a Gallery problem and how to present work on gallery problems.Goals and Learning ObjectivesKnow how to choose a problem from a Gallery.

Putting Math to Work Type of Unit: Problem Solving Prior Knowledge Students …

Putting Math to Work

Type of Unit: Problem Solving

Prior Knowledge

Students should be able to:

Solve problems with rational numbers using all four operations. Write ratios and rates. Use a rate table to solve problems. Write and solve proportions. Use multiple representations (e.g., tables, graphs, and equations) to display data. Identify the variables in a problem situation (i.e., dependent and independent variables). Write formulas to show the relationship between two variables, and use these formulas to solve for a problem situation. Draw and interpret graphs that show the relationship between two variables. Describe graphs that show proportional relationships, and use these graphs to make predictions. Interpret word problems, and organize information. Graph in all quadrants of the coordinate plane.

Lesson Flow

As a class, students use problem-solving steps to work through a problem about lightning. In the next lesson, they use the same problem-solving steps to solve a similar problem about lightning. The lightning problems use both rational numbers and rates. Students then choose a topic for a math project. Next, they solve two problems about gummy bears using the problem-solving steps. They then have 3 days of Gallery problems to test their problem-solving skills solo or with a partner. Encourage students to work on at least one problem individually so they can better prepare for a testing situation. The unit ends with project presentations and a short unit test.

In this lesson and the next, student groups make their presentations, provide …

In this lesson and the next, student groups make their presentations, provide feedback about other students' presentations, and get evaluated on their listening skills.Key ConceptsIn this culminating event, students must present their project plan and solution to the class. The presentation allows students to explain their problem-solving plan, to communicate their reasoning, and to construct a viable argument about a mathematical problem. Students also listen to other project presentations and provide feedback to the presenters. Listeners have the opportunity to critique the mathematical reasoning of others.Goals and Learning ObjectivesPresent project to the class.Give feedback on other project presentations.Exhibit good listening skills.

Student groups make their presentations, provide feedback for other students' presentations, and …

Student groups make their presentations, provide feedback for other students' presentations, and get evaluated on their listening skills.Key ConceptsIn this culminating event, students must present their project plan and solution to the class. The presentation allows students to explain their problem-solving plan, to communicate their reasoning, and to construct a viable argument about a mathematical problem. Students also listen to other project presentations and provide feedback to the presenters. Listeners have the opportunity to critique the mathematical reasoning of others.Goals and Learning ObjectivesPresent project to the class.Give feedback on other project presentations.Exhibit good listening skills.Reflect on the problem-solving and project development processes.

Students choose a project idea and a partner or group. They write …

Students choose a project idea and a partner or group. They write a proposal for the project.Key ConceptsProjects engage students in the applications of mathematics. It is important for students to apply mathematical ways of thinking to solve rich problems. Students are more motivated to understand mathematical concepts if they are engaged in solving a problem of their own choosing. In this lesson, students are challenged to identify an interesting mathematical problem and to choose a partner or a group to work with collaboratively on solving that problem. Students gain valuable skills in problem solving, reasoning, and communicating mathematical ideas with others.Goals and Learning ObjectivesIdentify a project idea.Identify a partner or group to work collaboratively on a math project.

Students work in a whole-class setting, independently, and with partners to design …

Students work in a whole-class setting, independently, and with partners to design and implement a problem-solving plan based on the mathematical concepts of rates and multiple representations (e.g., tables, equations, and graphs). They analyze a rule of thumb and use this relationship to calculate the distance in miles from a viewer's vantage point to lightning.Key ConceptsThroughout this unit, students are encouraged to apply the mathematical concepts they have learned over the course of this year to new settings. Help students develop and refine these problem-solving skills:Creating a problem-solving plan and implementing the plan systematicallyPersevering through challenging problems to find solutionsRecalling prior knowledge and applying that knowledge to new situationsMaking connections between previous learning and real-world problemsCommunicating their approaches with precision and articulating why their strategies and solutions are reasonableCreating efficacy and confidence in solving challenging problems in the real worldGoals and Learning ObjectivesCreate and implement a problem-solving plan.Organize and interpret data presented in a problem situation.Analyze the relationship between two variables.Create a rate table to organize data and make predictions.Apply the relationship between the variables to write a mathematical formula and use the formula to solve problems.Create a graph to display proportional relationships, and use this graph to make predictions.Articulate strategies, thought processes, and approaches to solving a problem, and defend why the solution is reasonable.

Lesson OverviewAllow students who have a clear understanding of the content in …

Lesson OverviewAllow students who have a clear understanding of the content in the unit to work on Gallery problems of their choosing. You can use this time to provide additional help to students who need review of the unit's concepts or to assist students who may have fallen behind on work.GalleryMap ReadingStudents will examine a street map, interpret the street map coordinates, and relate the street map to an x-y coordinate grid.Burning CandlesStudents will explore how the height of a burning candle changes with time. In one case, they will get information by watching a video of candles burning. In another case, they will be given data with which they can calculate a candle's height at any given time.More DirectionsStudents are given instructions on what path to take to get to a friend's house. But these instructions are incomplete because a starting point is not given. Their task is to figure out which starting points will make these instructions work.LeaguesStudents will determine how the length of a sports league's playing season is affected by increasing the number of teams from 22 to 30. They will use the number of times a game can be played each week and the present length of the season to solve the problem.TrafficStudents will figure out the distance between cars on a highway and how many cars there are along a 1-mile stretch of the highway. They will use the speed of the cars and how often a car passes a certain point to solve the problem.Leaky FaucetStudents will watch a video of a sink filling with water. From that, they will determine how long it will take for the sink to fill up completely.Frog JumpStudents are shown a drawing of yellow and green frogs arranged in a straight line. The yellow frogs are on the left, and the green frogs are on the right. Their task is to figure out how the yellow and green frogs can switch positions if they can move only by leaping according to certain rules.

Students design and work on their projects in class. They review the …

Students design and work on their projects in class. They review the project rubric and, as a class, add criteria relevant to their specific projects.Key ConceptsThroughout this unit, students are encouraged to apply the mathematical concepts they have learned over the course of this year to new settings. Help students develop and refine these problem-solving skills:Creating a problem-solving plan and implementing their plan systematicallyPersevering through challenging problems to find solutionsRecalling prior knowledge and applying that knowledge to new situationsMaking connections between previous learning and real-world problemsCommunicating their approaches with precision and articulating why their strategies and solutions are reasonableCreating efficacy and confidence in solving challenging problems in a real worldGoals and Learning ObjectivesCreate and implement a problem-solving plan.Organize and interpret data presented in a problem situation.Analyze the relationship between two variables.Use ratios.Write and solve proportions.Create rate tables to organize data and make predictions.Use multiple representations—including tables, graphs, and equations—to organize and communicate data.Articulate strategies, thought processes, and approaches to solving a problem and defend why the solution is reasonable.

During this two-day lesson, students work with a partner to create and …

During this two-day lesson, students work with a partner to create and implement a problem-solving plan based on the mathematical concepts of rates, ratios, and proportionality. Students analyze the relationship between different-sized gummy bears to solve problems involving size and price.Key ConceptsThroughout this unit, students are encouraged to apply the mathematical concepts they have learned over the course of this year to new settings. Help students develop and refine these problem-solving skills:Creating a problem solving plan and implementing their plan systematicallyPersevering through challenging problems to find solutionsRecalling prior knowledge and applying that knowledge to new situationsMaking connections between previous learning and real-world problemsCommunicating their approaches with precision and articulating why their strategies and solutions are reasonableCreating efficacy and confidence in solving challenging problems in a real worldGoals and Learning ObjectivesCreate and implement a problem-solving plan.Organize and interpret data presented in a problem situation.Analyze the relationship between two variables.Use ratios.Write and solve proportions.Create rate tables to organize data and make predictions.Use multiple representations—including tables, graphs, and equations—to organize and communicate data.Articulate strategies, thought processes, and approaches to solving a problem, and defend why the solution is reasonable.

During this two-day lesson, students work with a partner to create and …

During this two-day lesson, students work with a partner to create and implement a problem-solving plan based on the mathematical concepts of rates, ratios, and proportionality. Students analyze the relationship between different-sized gummy bears to solve problems involving size and price.Key ConceptsThroughout this unit, students are encouraged to apply the mathematical concepts they have learned over the course of this year to new settings. Helping students develop and refine these problem solving skills:Creating a problem solving plan and implementing their plan systematicallyPersevering through challenging problems to find solutionsRecalling prior knowledge and applying that knowledge to new situationsMaking connections between previous learning and real-world problemsCommunicating their approaches with precision and articulating why their strategies and solutions are reasonableCreating efficacy and confidence in solving challenging problems in a real worldGoals and Learning ObjectivesCreate and implement a problem-solving plan.Organize and interpret data presented in a problem situation.Analyze the relationship between two variables.Use ratios.Write and solve proportions.Create rate tables to organize data and make predictionsUse multiple representations—including tables, graphs, and equations—to organize and communicate data.Articulate strategies, thought processes, and approaches to solving a problem and defend why the solution is reasonable.

Students create and implement a problem-solving plan to solve another problem involving …

Students create and implement a problem-solving plan to solve another problem involving the relationship between the sound of thunder and the distance of the lightning.Key ConceptsThroughout this unit, students are encouraged to apply the mathematical concepts they have learned over the course of this year to new settings. Help students develop and refine these problem-solving skills:Creating a problem-solving plan and implementing their plan systematicallyPersevering through challenging problems to find solutionsRecalling prior knowledge and applying that knowledge to new situationsMaking connections between previous learning and real-world problemsCommunicating their approaches with precision and articulating why their strategies and solutions are reasonableCreating efficacy and confidence in solving challenging problems in a real worldGoals and Learning ObjectivesCreate and implement a problem-solving plan.Organize and interpret data presented in a problem situation.Analyze the relationship between two variables.Create a rate table to organize data and make predictions.Apply the relationship between the variables to write a mathematical formula and use the formula to solve problems.Create a graph to display proportional relationships and use this graph to make predictions.Articulate strategies, thought processes, and approaches to solving a problem and defend why the solution is reasonable.

Rate Type of Unit: Concept Prior Knowledge Students should be able to: …

Rate

Type of Unit: Concept

Prior Knowledge

Students should be able to:

Solve problems involving all four operations with rational numbers. Understand quantity as a number used with a unit of measurement. Solve problems involving quantities such as distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, and with the units of measurement for these quantities. Understand that a ratio is a comparison of two quantities. Write ratios for problem situations. Make and interpret tables, graphs, and diagrams. Write and solve equations to represent problem situations.

Lesson Flow

In this unit, students will explore the concept of rate in a variety of contexts: beats per minute, unit prices, fuel efficiency of a car, population density, speed, and conversion factors. Students will write and refine their own definition for rate and then use it to recognize rates in different situations. Students will learn that every rate is paired with an inverse rate that is a measure of the same relationship. Students will figure out the logic of how units are used with rates. Then students will represent quantitative relationships involving rates, using tables, graphs, double number lines, and formulas, and they will see how to create one such representation when given another.

In this lesson, students define rate. After coming up with a preliminary …

In this lesson, students define rate. After coming up with a preliminary definition on their own, students identify situations that describe rates and situations that do not.Students determine what is common among rate situations and then revise their definitions of rate based on these observations. Students present and discuss their work and together create a class definition. They compare the class definition of rate with the Glossary definition and revise the class definition as needed.Key ConceptsA good definition of rate has to be precise, yet general enough to be useful in a variety of situations. For example, the statement “a rate compares two quantities” is true, but it is so general that it is not helpful. The statement “speed is a rate” is true, but it is not useful in determining whether unit price or population density are rates.A good definition of rate needs to state that a rate is a single quantity, expressed with a unit of the form A per B, and derived from a comparison by division of two measures of a single situation.Goals and Learning ObjectivesGain a deeper understanding of rate by developing, refining, testing, and then refining again a definition of rate.Use a definition of rate to determine the kinds of situations that are rate situations and to recognize rates in new and different situations.Understand the importance of precision in communicating mathematical concepts.

In this lesson, students are introduced to rate in the context of …

In this lesson, students are introduced to rate in the context of music. They will explore beats per minute and compare rates using mathematical representations including graphs and double number lines.Key ConceptsBeats per minute is a rate. Musicians often count the number of beats per measure to determine the tempo of a song. A fast tempo produces music that seems to be racing, whereas a slow tempo results in music that is more relaxing. When graphed, sets with more beats per minute have smaller intervals on the double number line and steeper lines on the graph.Goals and Learning ObjectivesInvestigate rate in music.Find beats per minute by counting beats in music.Represent beats per minute on a double number line and a graph.

In this lesson, students explore rate in the context of grocery shopping. …

In this lesson, students explore rate in the context of grocery shopping. Students use the unit price, or price per egg, to find the price of any number of eggs.Key ConceptsA unit price is a rate. The unit price tells the price of one unit of something (for example, one pound of cheese, one quart of milk, one box of paper clips, one package of cereal, and so on).The unit price can be found by dividing the price in dollars by the number of units.The unit price can be used to find the price of any quantity of something by multiplying the unit price by the quantity.Goals and Learning ObjectivesInvestigate rate as a unit price.Find a unit price by dividing the price in dollars by the number of units.Find the price of any quantity of something by multiplying that quantity by the unit price.

In this lesson, students use an interactive map to compare the crowdedness …

In this lesson, students use an interactive map to compare the crowdedness of three countries of their choice. They learn that to compare countries with different areas and populations, they need to calculate population density—a rate that compares the population of a region to its area.Key ConceptsA ratio is a comparison of two quantities by division. It can be expressed in the forms a to b, a:b, or ab, where b ≠ 0. The value of a ratio is found by dividing the two quantities. A ratio provides a relative comparison of two quantities. A rate is a ratio that compares two quantities measured in different units. Population density is a rate that compares the population of a region to its area. The value is given in number of people per unit of area.ELL: Identifying key words are crucial for students. Spend some time discussing the key vocabulary in this unit.Goals and Learning ObjectivesExplore rate in the context of population density.Compare three countries to see which is most crowded—that is, which has the greatest population density.

Gallery OverviewAllow students who have a clear understanding of the content thus …

Gallery OverviewAllow students who have a clear understanding of the content thus far in the unit to work on Gallery problems of their choosing. You can then use this time to provide additional help to students who need review of the unit's concepts or to assist students who may have fallen behind on work.Gallery DescriptionsCreate Your Own RateStudents create their own rate problems, given three quantities that must all be used in the problems or the answers.Paper Clip ChallengeStudents think about rate in the context of setting a record for making a paperclip chain.The Speed of Light Students must determine the speed of light so they can figure out how long it will take a light beam from Earth to reach the Moon (assuming it would make it there). They conduct research and perform calculations.Tire WeightStudents connect area and a rate they may not be familiar with, tire pressure, to indirectly weigh a car. They find and add areas and do a simple rate calculation. Please note this problem requires adult supervision for the process of measuring the car tires. If no adult supervision is available, you can provide students with measurements to work with inside the classroom. Do not allow students to work with a car without permission from the owner and adult supervision.Planting Wildflowers Students apply area and length concepts (square miles, acres, and feet) to rectangles, choose and carry out appropriate area conversions, and show each step of their solutions. While specific solution paths will vary, all students who show good conceptualization will make at least one area conversion and show understanding about area even when dimensions and units change. This task allows several different correct solution paths.Train Track Students use information about laying railroad ties for the Union Pacific Railroad. These rates are different from those used elsewhere in the unit, asking how many rails per gang of workers, how long it takes to lay one mile of track, and how many spikes are needed for a mile of track.HeartbeatsStudents will investigate and compare the heartbeats of different animals and their own heartbeat.FoghornStudents use the relationships among seconds, minutes, and hours to find equivalent rates. Each step requires students to express an equivalent rate in terms of these different units of time. In any strong response, students use conversion factors and the given rate to find equivalent rates.

Gallery OverviewAllow students who have a clear understanding of the content thus …

Gallery OverviewAllow students who have a clear understanding of the content thus far in the unit to work on Gallery problems of their choosing. You can then use this time to provide additional help to students who need review of the unit's concepts or to assist students who may have fallen behind on work.Gallery DescriptionsDog and CatStudents refer to a pre-made graph showing how much dry food a dog eats and how much dry food a cat eats over the same time period. They analyze the graph and list specific information they can conclude from the graph.Faucet Rate ProblemStudents perform research on the Internet about standard water flow rates of bathroom faucets in the United States. They test faucets at home or at school and prepare responses to the questions.Shower versus BathStudents will use their knowledge of rates to figure out which uses less water, a shower or a bath.Laps, Miles, KilometersStudents use rates to convert measures given in laps, kilometers, and miles. They justify their reasons for ordering distances given in these three units.Paper ProblemStudents write and use formulas for heights of stacks of paper. They practice writing rates for h in terms of n and for n in terms of h.Three ScalesStudents use a triple number line to convert among the units laps on a track, kilometers, and miles. Given one number line, they mark two other number lines to show equal distances in the units.Water ProblemThis problem begins with a video of a cube container being filled with colored water. Students determine what information they'd need in order to figure out the volume of water in the cube at any time.

In this lesson, students use a ruler that measures both inches and …

In this lesson, students use a ruler that measures both inches and centimeters to find conversion factors for converting inches to centimeters and centimeters to inches.Key ConceptsRates can be used to convert a measurement in one unit to a corresponding measurement in another unit. We call rates that are used for such purposes conversion factors.The conversion factor 2.54 centimeters per inch is used to convert a measurement in inches to a measurement in centimeters (or, from the English system to the metric system).The conversion factor 0.3937 inches per centimeter is used to convert a measurement in centimeters to a measurement in inches (or, from the metric system to the English system).In the calculation, the inch units cancel out and the remaining centimeter units are the units of the answer, or vice versa.Goals and Learning ObjectivesExplore rate in the context of finding and using conversion factors.Understand that there are two conversion factors that translate a measurement in one unit to a corresponding measurement in another unit, and that these two conversion factors are inverses of one another.

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