Students connect polynomial arithmetic to computations with whole numbers and integers. åÊStudents learn that the arithmetic of rational expressions is governed by the same rules as the arithmetic of rational numbers. åÊThis unit helps students see connections between solutions to polynomial equations, zeros of polynomials, and graphs of polynomial functions. åÊPolynomial equations are solved over the set of complex numbers, leading to a beginning understanding of the fundamental theorem of algebra. åÊApplication and modeling problems connect multiple representations and include both real world and purely mathematical situations.
Search Results (81)
Module 2 builds on studentsåÕ previous work with units and with functions from Algebra I, and with trigonometric ratios and circles from high school Geometry.åÊThe heart of the module is the study of precise definitions of sine and cosine (as well as tangent and the co-functions) using transformational geometry from high school Geometry.åÊThis precision leads to a discussion of a mathematically natural unit of rotational measure, a radian, and students begin to build fluency with the values of the trigonometric functions in terms of radians.åÊStudents graph sinusoidal and other trigonometric functions, and use the graphs to help in modeling and discovering properties of trigonometric functions.åÊThe study of the properties culminates in the proof of the Pythagorean identity and other trigonometric identities.
In this module, students synthesize and generalize what they have learned about a variety of function families. åÊThey extend the domain of exponential functions to the entire real line (N-RN.A.1) and then extend their work with these functions to include solving exponential equations with logarithms (F-LE.A.4). åÊThey explore (with appropriate tools) the effects of transformations on graphs of exponential and logarithmic functions. åÊThey notice that the transformations on a graph of a logarithmic function relate to the logarithmic properties (F-BF.B.3). åÊStudents identify appropriate types of functions to model a situation. åÊThey adjust parameters to improve the model, and they compare models by analyzing appropriateness of fit and making judgments about the domain over which a model is a good fit. åÊThe description of modeling as, åÒthe process of choosing and using mathematics and statistics to analyze empirical situations, to understand them better, and to make decisions,åÓ is at the heart of this module. åÊIn particular, through repeated opportunities in working through the modeling cycle (see page 61 of the CCLS), students acquire the insight that the same mathematical or statistical structure can sometimes model seemingly different situations.
Students build a formal understanding of probability, considering complex events such as unions, intersections, and complements as well as the concept of independence and conditional probability. åÊThe idea of using a smooth curve to model a data distribution is introduced along with using tables and techonolgy to find areas under a normal curve. åÊStudents make inferences and justify conclusions from sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies. åÊData is used from random samples to estimate a population mean or proportion. åÊStudents calculate margin of error and interpret it in context. åÊGiven data from a statistical experiment, students use simulation to create a randomization distribution and use it to determine if there is a significant difference between two treatments.
In this module, students reconnect with and deepen their understanding of statistics and probability concepts first introduced in Grades 6, 7, and 8.åÊStudents develop a set of tools for understanding and interpreting variability in data, and begin to make more informed decisions from data. They work with data distributions of various shapes, centers, and spreads.åÊStudents build on their experience with bivariate quantitative data from Grade 8.åÊThis module sets the stage for more extensive work with sampling and inference in later grades.
In earlier grades, students define, evaluate, and compare functions and use them to model relationships between quantities. In this module, students extend their study of functions to include function notation and the concepts of domain and range. They explore many examples of functions and their graphs, focusing on the contrast between linear and exponential functions. They interpret functions given graphically, numerically, symbolically, and verbally; translate between representations; and understand the limitations of various representations.
In earlier modules, students analyze the process of solving equations and developing fluency in writing, interpreting, and translating between various forms of linear equations (Module 1) and linear and exponential functions (Module 3). These experiences combined with modeling with data (Module 2), set the stage for Module 4. Here students continue to interpret expressions, create equations, rewrite equations and functions in different but equivalent forms, and graph and interpret functions, but this time using polynomial functions, and more specifically quadratic functions, as well as square root and cube root functions.
Module 1 embodies critical changes in Geometry as outlined by the Common Core. The heart of the module is the study of transformations and the role transformations play in defining congruence. The topic of transformations is introduced in a primarily experiential manner in Grade 8 and is formalized in Grade 10 with the use of precise language. The need for clear use of language is emphasized through vocabulary, the process of writing steps to perform constructions, and ultimately as part of the proof-writing process.
Just as rigid motions are used to define congruence in Module 1, so dilations are added to define similarity in Module 2. åÊTo be able to discuss similarity, students must first have a clear understanding of how dilations behave. åÊThis is done in two parts, by studying how dilations yield scale drawings and reasoning why the properties of dilations must be true. Once dilations are clearly established, similarity transformations are defined and length and angle relationships are examined, yielding triangle similarity criteria. åÊAn in-depth look at similarity within right triangles follows, and finally the module ends with a study of right triangle trigonometry.
Module 3, Extending to Three Dimensions, builds on studentsåÕ understanding of congruence in Module 1 and similarity in Module 2 to prove volume formulas for solids. The student materials consist of the student pages for each lesson in Module 3. The copy ready materials are a collection of the module assessments, lesson exit tickets and fluency exercises from the teacher materials.
In this module, students explore and experience the utility of analyzing algebra and geometry challenges through the framework of coordinates. The module opens with a modeling challenge, one that reoccurs throughout the lessons, to use coordinate geometry to program the motion of a robot that is bound within a certain polygonal region of the planeåÑthe room in which it sits. To set the stage for complex work in analytic geometry (computing coordinates of points of intersection of lines and line segments or the coordinates of points that divide given segments in specific length ratios, and so on), students will describe the region via systems of algebraic inequalitiesåÊand work to constrain the robot motion along line segments within the region.
This module brings together the ideas of similarity and congruence and the properties of length, area, and geometric constructions studied throughout the year. åÊIt also includes the specific properties of triangles, special quadrilaterals, parallel lines and transversals, and rigid motions established and built upon throughout this mathematical story. åÊThis module's focus is on the possible geometric relationships between a pair of intersecting lines and a circle drawn on the page.
In this first module of Grade 1, students make significant progress towards fluency with addition and subtraction of numbers to 10 as they are presented with opportunities intended to advance them from counting all to counting on which leads many students then to decomposing and composing addends and total amounts.
Module 2 serves as a bridge from students' prior work with problem solving within 10 to work within 100 as students begin to solve addition and subtraction problems involving teen numbers. Students go beyond the Level 2 strategies of counting on and counting back as they learn Level 3 strategies informally called "make ten" or "take from ten."
Module 3 begins by extending studentsåÕ kindergarten experiences with direct length comparison to indirect comparison whereby the length of one object is used to compare the lengths of two other objects.åÊ Longer than and shorter than are taken to a new level of precision by introducing the idea of a length unit.åÊ Students then explore the usefulness of measuring with similar units. The module closes with students representing and interpreting data.
In Module 5, students consider partåÐwhole relationships through a geometric lens. The module opens with students identifying the defining parts, or attributes, of two- and three-dimensional shapes, building on their kindergarten experiences of sorting, analyzing, comparing, and creating various two- and three-dimensional shapes and objects. Students combine shapes to create a new whole: a composite shape. They also relate geometric figures to equal parts and name the parts as halves and fourths. The module closes with students applying their understanding of halves to tell time to the hour and half hour.
In this final module of the Grade 1 curriculum, students bring together their learning from Module 1 through Module 5 to learn the most challenging Grade 1 standards and celebrate their progress. As the module opens, students grapple with comparative word problem types. Next, they extend their understanding of and skill with tens and ones to numbers to 100. Students also extend their learning from Module 4 to the numbers to 100 to add and subtract. At the start of the second half of Module 6, students are introduced to nickels and quarters, having already used pennies and dimes in the context of their work with numbers to 40 in Module 4. Students use their knowledge of tens and ones to explore decompositions of the values of coins. The module concludes with fun fluency festivities to celebrate a year's worth of learning.
Module 1 sets the foundation for students to master the sums and differences to 20 and toåÊ subsequently apply these skills to fluently add one-digit to two-digit numbers at least through 100 using place value understandings, properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.
In this 25-day Grade 2 module, students expand their skill with and understanding of units by bundling ones, tens, and hundreds up to a thousand with straws. Unlike the length of 10 centimeters in Module 2, these bundles are discrete sets. One unit can be grabbed and counted just like a banana?1 hundred, 2 hundred, 3 hundred, etc. A number in Grade 1 generally consisted of two different units, tens and ones. Now, in Grade 2, a number generally consists of three units: hundreds, tens, and ones. The bundled units are organized by separating them largest to smallest, ordered from left to right. Over the course of the module, instruction moves from physical bundles that show the proportionality of the units to non-proportional place value disks and to numerals on the place value chart.
In Module 4, students develop place value strategies to fluently add and subtract within 100;åÊthey represent and solve one- and two-step word problems of varying types within 100;åÊand they develop conceptual understanding of addition and subtraction of multi-digit numbers within 200.åÊ Using a concrete to pictorial to abstract approach, students use manipulatives and math drawings to develop an understanding of the composition and decomposition of units, and they relate these representations to the standard algorithm for addition and subtraction.
Module 6 lays the conceptual foundation for multiplication and division in Grade 3 and for the idea that numbers other than 1, 10, and 100 can serve as units.åÊ Topics in this module include:åÊ Formation of Equal Groups, Arrays and Equal Groups, Rectangular Arrays as a Foundation for Multiplication and Division, and The Meaning of Even and Odd Numbers.
Module 7 presents an opportunity for students to practice addition and subtraction strategies within 100 and problem-solving skills as they learn to work with various types of units within the contexts of length, money, and data.åÊ Students represent categorical and measurement data using picture graphs, bar graphs, and line plots.åÊ They revisit measuring and estimating length from Module 2, though now using both metric and customary units.
In Module 8, the final module of the year, students extend their understanding of partåÐwhole relationships through the lens of geometry.åÊ As students compose and decompose shapes, they begin to develop an understanding of unit fractions as equal parts of a whole.
This 25-day module begins the year by building on studentsåÕ fluency with addition and knowledge of arrays.
In this 35-day Grade 3 module, students extend and deepen second grade practice with "equal shares" to understanding fractions as equal partitions of a whole. Their knowledge becomes more formal as they work with area models and the number line.
Module 2 uses place value to unify measurement, rounding skills, and the standard algorithms for addition and subtraction. åÊThe module begins with plenty of hands-on experience using a variety of tools to build practical measurement skills and conceptual understanding of metric and time units.åÊ Estimation naturally surfaces through application; this transitions students into rounding.åÊ In the moduleåÕs final topics students round to assess whether or not their solutions to problems solved using the standard algorithms are reasonable.
This 25-day module builds directly on studentsåÕ work with multiplication and division in Module 1. Module 3 extends the study of factors from 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 to include all units from 0 to 10, as well as multiples of 10 within 100. Similar to the organization of Module 1, the introduction of new factors in Module 3 spreads across topics. This allows students to build fluency with facts involving a particular unit before moving on. The factors are sequenced to facilitate systematic instruction with increasingly sophisticated strategies and patterns.
In this 20-day module students explore area as an attribute of two-dimensional figures and relate it to their prior understandings of multiplication. Students conceptualize area as the amount of two-dimensional surface that is contained within a plane figure.åÊ They come to understand that the space can be tiled with unit squares without gaps or overlaps.åÊ They make predictions and explore which rectangles cover the most area when the side lengths differ.åÊ Students progress from using square tile manipulatives to drawing their own area models and manipulate rectangular arrays to concretely demonstrate the arithmetic properties. The module culminates with students designing a simple floor plan that conforms to given area specifications.
This 10-day module builds on Grade 2 concepts about data, graphing, and line plots.åÊThe two topics in this module focus on generating and analyzing categorical and measurement data.åÊ By the end of the module, students are working with a mixture of scaled picture graphs, bar graphs, and line plots to problem solve using both categorical and measurement data.
This 40-day final module of the year offers students intensive practice with word problems, as well as hands-on investigation experiences with geometry and perimeter.åÊ The module begins with solving one- and two-step word problems based on a variety of topics studied throughout the year, using all four operations.åÊ Next students explore geometry.åÊ Students tessellate to bridge geometry experience with the study of perimeter.åÊ Line plots, familiar from Module 6, help students draw conclusions about perimeter and area measurements.åÊ Students solve word problems involving area and perimeter using all four operations.åÊ The module concludes with a set of engaging lessons that briefly review the fundamental Grade 3 concepts of fractions, multiplication, and division.
Module 2 uses length, mass and capacity in the metric system to convert between units using place value knowledge.åÊ Students recognize patterns of converting units on the place value chart, just as 1000 grams is equal 1 kilogram, 1000 ones is equal to 1 thousand.åÊ Conversions are recorded in two-column tables and number lines, and are applied in single- and multi-step word problems solved by the addition and subtraction algorithm or a special strategy.åÊ Mixed unit practice prepares students for multi-digit operations and manipulating fractional units in future modules.
In this 43-day module, students use place value understanding and visual representations to solve multiplication and division problems with multi-digit numbers. As a key area of focus for Grade 4, this module moves slowly but comprehensively to develop studentsåÕ ability to reason about the methods and models chosen to solve problems with multi-digit factors and dividends.
This 20-day module introduces points, lines, line segments, rays, and angles, as well as the relationships between them. Students construct, recognize, and define these geometric objects before using their new knowledge and understanding to classify figures and solve problems. With angle measure playing a key role in their work throughout the module, students learn how to create and measure angles, as well as create and solve equations to find unknown angle measures. In these problems, where the unknown angle is represented by a letter, students explore both measuring the unknown angle with a protractor and reasoning through the solving of an equation. Through decomposition and composition activities as well as an exploration of symmetry, students recognize specific attributes present in two-dimensional figures. They further develop their understanding of these attributes as they classify two-dimensional figures based on them.
In this 40-day module, students build on their Grade 3 work with unit fractions as they explore fraction equivalence and extend this understanding to mixed numbers.åÊ This leads to the comparison of fractions and mixed numbers and the representation of both in a variety of models.åÊ Benchmark fractions play an important part in studentsåÕ ability to generalize and reason about relative fraction and mixed number sizes.åÊ Students then have the opportunity to apply what they know to be true for whole number operations to the new concepts of fraction and mixed number operations.
This 20-day module gives students their first opportunity to explore decimal numbers via their relationship to decimal fractions, expressing a given quantity in both fraction and decimal forms.åÊ Utilizing the understanding of fractions developed throughout Module 5, students apply the same reasoning to decimal numbers, building a solid foundation for Grade 5 work with decimal operations.
In this 20-day module, students build their competencies in measurement as they relate multiplication to the conversion of measurement units.åÊ Throughout the module, students will explore multiple strategies for solving measurement problems involving unit conversion.
In Module 1, students‰Ûª understanding of the patterns in the base ten system are extended from Grade 4‰Ûªs work with place value of multi-digit whole numbers and decimals to hundredths to the thousandths place. In Grade 5, students deepen their knowledge through a more generalized understanding of the relationships between and among adjacent places on the place value chart, e.g., 1 tenth times any digit on the place value chart moves it one place value to the right. Toward the module‰Ûªs end students apply these new understandings as they reason about and perform decimal operations through the hundredths place.
In Module 2, students apply the patterns of the base ten system to mental strategies and the multiplication and division algorithms.
In Module 2 students apply patterns of the base ten systemåÊ to mental strategies and a sequential study of multiplication via area diagrams and the distributive property leading to fluency with the standard algorithm.åÊ Students move from whole numbers to multiplication with decimals, again using place value as a guide to reason and make estimations about products. Multiplication is explored as a method for expressing equivalent measures in both whole number and decimal forms.åÊ A similar sequence for division begins concretely with number disks as an introduction to division with multi-digit divisors and leads student to divide multi-digit whole number and decimal dividends by two-digit divisors using a vertical written method.åÊ In addition, students evaluate and write expressions, recording their calculations using the associative property and parentheses.åÊ Students apply the work of the module to solve multi-step word problems using multi-digit multiplication and division with unknowns representing either the group size or number of groups.åÊ An emphasis on the reasonableness of both products and quotients, interpretation of remainders and reasoning about the placement of decimals draws on skills learned throughout the module, including refining knowledge of place value, rounding, and estimation.
In Module 3, students' understanding of addition and subtraction of fractions extends from earlier work with fraction equivalence and decimals. This module marks a significant shift away from the elementary grades' centrality of base ten units to the study and use of the full set of fractional units from Grade 5 forward, especially as applied to algebra.
In this 25-day module, students work with two- and three-dimensional figures.åÊ Volume is introduced to students through concrete exploration of cubic units and culminates with the development of the volume formula for right rectangular prisms.åÊ The second half of the module turns to extending studentsåÕ understanding of two-dimensional figures.åÊ Students combine prior knowledge of area with newly acquired knowledge of fraction multiplication to determine the area of rectangular figures with fractional side lengths.åÊ They then engage in hands-on construction of two-dimensional shapes, developing a foundation for classifying the shapes by reasoning about their attributes.åÊ This module fills a gap between Grade 4åÕs work with two-dimensional figures and Grade 6åÕs work with volume and area.
In this 40-day module, students develop a coordinate system for the first quadrant of the coordinate plane and use it to solve problems.åÊ Students use the familiar number line as an introduction to the idea of a coordinate, and they construct two perpendicular number lines to create a coordinate system on the plane.åÊ Students see that just as points on the line can be located by their distance from 0, the planeåÕs coordinate system can be used to locate and plot points using two coordinates.åÊ They then use the coordinate system to explore relationships between points, ordered pairs, patterns, lines and, more abstractly, the rules that generate them.åÊ This study culminates in an exploration of the coordinate plane in real world applications.
In order to assist educators with the implementation of the Common Core, the New York State Education Department provides curricular modules in P-12 English Language Arts and Mathematics that schools and districts can adopt or adapt for local purposes. The full year of Grade 6 Mathematics curriculum is available from the module links
Students begin their sixth grade year investigating the concepts of ratio and rate. They use multiple forms of ratio language and ratio notation, and formalize understanding of equivalent ratios. Students apply reasoning when solving collections of ratio problems in real world contexts using various tools (e.g., tape diagrams, double number line diagrams, tables, equations and graphs). Students bridge their understanding of ratios to the value of a ratio, and then to rate and unit rate, discovering that a percent of a quantity is a rate per 100. The 35 day module concludes with students expressing a fraction as a percent and finding a percent of a quantity in real world concepts, supporting their reasoning with familiar representations they used previously in the module.
In Module 1, students used their existing understanding of multiplication and division as they began their study of ratios and rates. åÊIn Module 2, students complete their understanding of the four operations as they study division of whole numbers, division by a fraction and operations on multi-digit decimals. åÊThis expanded understanding serves to complete their study of the four operations with positive rational numbers, thereby preparing students for understanding, locating, and ordering negative rational numbers (Module 3) and algebraic expressions (Module 4).
In Module 4, Expressions and Equations, students extend their arithmetic work to include using letters to represent numbers in order to understand that letters are simply "stand-ins" for numbers and that arithmetic is carried out exactly as it is with numbers. Students explore operations in terms of verbal expressions and determine that arithmetic properties hold true with expressions because nothing has changedåÑthey are still doing arithmetic with numbers. Students determine that letters are used to represent specific but unknown numbers and are used to make statements or identities that are true for all numbers or a range of numbers. They understand the relationships of operations and use them to generate equivalent expressions, ultimately extending arithmetic properties from manipulating numbers to manipulating expressions. Students read, write and evaluate expressions in order to develop and evaluate formulas. From there, they move to the study of true and false number sentences, where students conclude that solving an equation is the process of determining the number(s) that, when substituted for the variable, result in a true sentence. They conclude the module using arithmetic properties, identities, bar models, and finally algebra to solve one-step, two-step, and multi-step equations.
In this module, students utilize their previous experiences in order to understand and develop formulas for area, volume, and surface area.åÊ Students use composition and decomposition to determine the area of triangles, quadrilaterals, and other polygons.åÊ Extending skills from Module 3 where they used coordinates and absolute value to find distances between points on a coordinate plane, students determine distance, perimeter, and area on the coordinate plane in real-world contexts.åÊ Next in the module comes real-life application of the volume formula where students extend the notion that volume is additive and find the volume of composite solid figures.åÊ They apply volume formulas and use their previous experience with solving equations to find missing volumes and missing dimensions.åÊ The final topic includes deconstructing the faces of solid figures to determine surface area.åÊ To wrap up the module, students apply the surface area formula to real-life contexts and distinguish between the need to find surface area or volume within contextual situations.
In this module, students move from simply representing data into analysis of data.åÊ Students begin to think and reason statistically, first by recognizing a statistical question as one that can be answered by collecting data.åÊ Students learn that the data collected to answer a statistical question has a distribution that is often summarized in terms of center, variability, and shape.åÊ Throughout the module, students see and represent data distributions using dot plots and histograms.åÊ They study quantitative ways to summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context and to the shape of the distribution.åÊ As the module ends, students synthesize what they have learned as they connect the graphical, verbal, and numerical summaries to each other within situational contexts, culminating with a major project.
In order to assist educators with the implementation of the Common Core, the New York State Education Department provides curricular modules in P-12 English Language Arts and Mathematics that schools and districts can adopt or adapt for local purposes. The full year of Grade 7 Mathematics curriculum is available from the module links.
In this 30-day Grade 7 module, students build upon sixth grade reasoning of ratios and rates to formally define proportional relationships and the constant of proportionality.åÊ Students explore multiple representations of proportional relationships by looking at tables, graphs, equations, and verbal descriptions.åÊ Students extend their understanding about ratios and proportional relationships to compute unit rates for ratios and rates specified by rational numbers. The module concludes with students applying proportional reasoning to identify scale factor and create a scale drawing.
This module consolidates and expands upon studentsåÕ understanding of equivalent expressions as they apply the properties of operations to write expressions in both standard form and in factored form.åÊ They use linear equations to solve unknown angle problems and other problems presented within context to understand that solving algebraic equations is all about the numbers.åÊ Students use the number line to understand the properties of inequality and recognize when to preserve the inequality and when to reverse the inequality when solving problems leading to inequalities.åÊ They interpret solutions within the context of problems.åÊ Students extend their sixth-grade study of geometric figures and the relationships between them as they apply their work with expressions and equations to solve problems involving area of a circle and composite area in the plane, as well as volume and surface area of right prisms.
In Module 4, students deepen their understanding of ratios and proportional relationships from Module 1 by solving a variety of percent problems. They convert between fractions, decimals, and percents to further develop a conceptual understanding of percent and use algebraic expressions and equations to solve multi-step percent problems. An initial focus on relating 100% to åÒthe wholeåÓ serves as a foundation for students.åÊ Students begin the module by solving problems without using a calculator to develop an understanding of the reasoning underlying the calculations.åÊ Material in early lessons is designed to reinforce studentsåÕ understanding by having them use mental math and basic computational skills. To develop a conceptual understanding, students use visual models and equations, building on their earlier work with these.åÊ As the lessons and topics progress and students solve multi-step percent problems algebraically with numbers that are not as compatible, teachers may let students use calculators so that their computational work does not become a distraction.
In this module, students begin their study of probability, learning how to interpret probabilities and how to compute probabilities in simple settings.åÊ They also learn how to estimate probabilities empirically.åÊ Probability provides a foundation for the inferential reasoning developed in the second half of this module.åÊ Additionally, students build on their knowledge of data distributions that they studied in Grade 6, compare data distributions of two or more populations, and are introduced to the idea of drawing informal inferences based on data from random samples.
In Module 6, students delve further into several geometry topics they have been developing over the years.åÊ Grade 7 presents some of these topics, (e.g., angles, area, surface area, and volume) in the most challenging form students have experienced yet.åÊ Module 6 assumes students understand the basics.åÊ The goal is to build a fluency in these difficult problems.åÊ The remaining topics, (i.e., working on constructing triangles and taking slices (or cross-sections) of three-dimensional figures) are new to students.
In Grade 8 Module 1, students expand their basic knowledge of positive integer exponents and prove the Laws of Exponents for any integer exponent.åÊ Next, students work with numbers in the form of an integer multiplied by a power of 10 to express how many times as much one is than the other.åÊ This leads into an explanation of scientific notation and continued work performing operations on numbers written in this form.
In this module, students learn about translations, reflections, and rotations in the plane and, more importantly, how to use them to precisely define the concept of congruence. Throughout Topic A, on the definitions and properties of the basic rigid motions, students verify experimentally their basic properties and, when feasible, deepen their understanding of these properties using reasoning. All the lessons of Topic B demonstrate to students the ability to sequence various combinations of rigid motions while maintaining the basic properties of individual rigid motions. Students learn that congruence is just a sequence of basic rigid motions in Topic C, and Topic D begins the learning of Pythagorean Theorem.
In Module 3, students learn about dilation and similarity and apply that knowledge to a proof of the Pythagorean Theorem based on the Angle-Angle criterion for similar triangles.åÊ The module begins with the definition of dilation, properties of dilations, and compositions of dilations.åÊ One overarching goal of this module is to replace the common idea of åÒsame shape, different sizesåÓ with a definition of similarity that can be applied to geometric shapes that are not polygons, such as ellipses and circles.
In Module 4, students extend what they already know about unit rates and proportional relationships to linear equations and their graphs.åÊ Students understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations in this module.åÊ Students learn to apply the skills they acquired in Grades 6 and 7, with respect to symbolic notation and properties of equality to transcribe and solve equations in one variable and then in two variables.
In the first topic of this 15 day module, students learn the concept of a function and why functions are necessary for describing geometric concepts and occurrences in everyday life.åÊ Once a formal definition of a function is provided, students then consider functions of discrete and continuous rates and understand the difference between the two.åÊ Students apply their knowledge of linear equations and their graphs from Module 4 to graphs of linear functions.åÊ Students inspect the rate of change of linear functions and conclude that the rate of change is the slope of the graph of a line.åÊ They learn to interpret the equation y=mx+b as defining a linear function whose graph is a line.åÊ Students compare linear functions and their graphs and gain experience with non-linear functions as well.åÊ In the second and final topic of this module, students extend what they learned in Grade 7 about how to solve real-world and mathematical problems related to volume from simple solids to include problems that require the formulas for cones, cylinders, and spheres.
In Grades 6 and 7, students worked with data involving a single variable.åÊ Module 6 introduces students to bivariate data.åÊ Students are introduced to a function as a rule that assigns exactly one value to each input.åÊ In this module, students use their understanding of functions to model the possible relationships of bivariate data.åÊ This module is important in setting a foundation for studentsåÕ work in algebra in Grade 9.