Students connect polynomial arithmetic to computations with whole numbers and integers. Students learn that the arithmetic of rational expressions is governed by the same rules as the arithmetic of rational numbers. This unit helps students see connections between solutions to polynomial equations, zeros of polynomials, and graphs of polynomial functions. Polynomial equations are solved over the set of complex numbers, leading to a beginning understanding of the fundamental theorem of algebra. Application and modeling problems connect multiple representations and include both real world and purely mathematical situations.
Module 2 builds on students previous work with units and with functions from Algebra I, and with trigonometric ratios and circles from high school Geometry. The heart of the module is the study of precise definitions of sine and cosine (as well as tangent and the co-functions) using transformational geometry from high school Geometry. This precision leads to a discussion of a mathematically natural unit of rotational measure, a radian, and students begin to build fluency with the values of the trigonometric functions in terms of radians. Students graph sinusoidal and other trigonometric functions, and use the graphs to help in modeling and discovering properties of trigonometric functions. The study of the properties culminates in the proof of the Pythagorean identity and other trigonometric identities.
In this module, students synthesize and generalize what they have learned about a variety of function families. They extend the domain of exponential functions to the entire real line (N-RN.A.1) and then extend their work with these functions to include solving exponential equations with logarithms (F-LE.A.4). They explore (with appropriate tools) the effects of transformations on graphs of exponential and logarithmic functions. They notice that the transformations on a graph of a logarithmic function relate to the logarithmic properties (F-BF.B.3). Students identify appropriate types of functions to model a situation. They adjust parameters to improve the model, and they compare models by analyzing appropriateness of fit and making judgments about the domain over which a model is a good fit. The description of modeling as, the process of choosing and using mathematics and statistics to analyze empirical situations, to understand them better, and to make decisions, is at the heart of this module. In particular, through repeated opportunities in working through the modeling cycle (see page 61 of the CCLS), students acquire the insight that the same mathematical or statistical structure can sometimes model seemingly different situations.
In this module, students reconnect with and deepen their understanding of statistics and probability concepts first introduced in Grades 6, 7, and 8. Students develop a set of tools for understanding and interpreting variability in data, and begin to make more informed decisions from data. They work with data distributions of various shapes, centers, and spreads. Students build on their experience with bivariate quantitative data from Grade 8. This module sets the stage for more extensive work with sampling and inference in later grades.
In earlier grades, students define, evaluate, and compare functions and use them to model relationships between quantities. In this module, students extend their study of functions to include function notation and the concepts of domain and range. They explore many examples of functions and their graphs, focusing on the contrast between linear and exponential functions. They interpret functions given graphically, numerically, symbolically, and verbally; translate between representations; and understand the limitations of various representations.
In earlier modules, students analyze the process of solving equations and developing fluency in writing, interpreting, and translating between various forms of linear equations (Module 1) and linear and exponential functions (Module 3). These experiences combined with modeling with data (Module 2), set the stage for Module 4. Here students continue to interpret expressions, create equations, rewrite equations and functions in different but equivalent forms, and graph and interpret functions, but this time using polynomial functions, and more specifically quadratic functions, as well as square root and cube root functions.
This Geometry Concept Collection is a rigorous presentation of high school geometry. It is fully correlated with the Common Core State Standards.
This lesson will help students master Algebra I standard 15: Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations [A-CED4]. The lesson will make the connection between isolating a guilty person in a "who-dun-it" with isolating a given variable in an equation. In addition, this lesson will involve students creating a list of procedures to use when solving for a given variable. At this time it is not necessary for students to know the formal names for the properties. It is important for students to understand the concepts and take part in creating a set of procedures for isolating a variable and solving equations. This lesson results from the ALEX Resource Gap Project.
This lesson is designed to teach the students that some quadratic equations will have imaginary solutions. The lesson will examine the concept of complex numbers in terms i. The student will use the quadratic formula to solve the equations and write the the solutions in the form a +bi. This lesson results from the ALEX Resource Gap Project.
The lesson will develop knowledge for other bases besides base 10. The lesson will investigate base 2, base 8, and base 16. The student will write numbers using expanded notation. This lesson results from the ALEX Resource Gap Project.
All of us have felt sick at some point in our lives. Many times, we find ourselves asking, "What is the quickest way that I can start to feel better?" During this two-lesson unit, students study that question and determine which form of medicine delivery (pill, liquid, injection/shot) offers the fastest relief. This challenge question serves as a real-world context for learning all about flow rates. Students study how long various prescription methods take to introduce chemicals into our blood streams, as well as use flow rate to determine how increasing a person's heart rate can theoretically make medicines work more quickly. Students are introduced to engineering devices that simulate what occurs during the distribution of antibiotic cells in the body.
The Teacher's Edition covers tips, common errors, enrichment, differentiated instruction and problem solving for teaching CK-12's Basic Geometry Student Edition. The solution and assessment guides are available upon request.
This stand-alone module examines the history, applications, and various proofs of the Pythagorean Theorem. The module also includes student activities and exercise problems. The module assumes the reader has a basic geometry background.
CK-12's Geometry - Second Edition is a clear presentation of the essentials of geometry for the high school student. Topics include: Proofs, Triangles, Quadrilaterals, Similarity, Perimeter & Area, Volume, and Transformations.
In this lesson, students will investigate error. As shown in earlier activities from navigation lessons 1 through 3, without an understanding of how errors can affect your position, you cannot navigate well. Introducing accuracy and precision will develop these concepts further. Also, students will learn how computers can help in navigation. Often, the calculations needed to navigate accurately are time consuming and complex. By using the power of computers to do calculations and repetitive tasks, one can quickly see how changing parameters likes angles and distances and introducing errors will affect their overall result.
In this lesson, students will learn how great navigators of the past stayed on course that is, the historical methods of navigation. The concepts of dead reckoning and celestial navigation are discussed.
Significant figures are the number of digits in a value, often a measurement, that contribute to the degree of accuracy of the value. We start counting significant figures at the first non-zero digit. Calculate the number of significant figures for an assortment of numbers.
After their carts collide in a hardware store, two teachers discover that they both bought the same items in different quantities. With limited information, this segment demonstrates how to use an equation to determine the cost of each item.
In this lesson, students are asked to provide a written description of both an exponential function and its inverse. They are then introduced to the logarithmic function and will practice writing exponential functions as logarithms and logarithms as exponential functions. Students will evaluate logarithmic expressions and will solve logarithmic equations. This lesson results from the ALEX Gap Resource Project.
Graph theory is a visual way to represent relationships between objects. One of the simplest uses of graph theory is a family tree that shows how different people are related. Another application is social networks like Facebook, where a network of "friends" and their "friends" can be represented using graphs. Students learn and apply concepts and methods of graph theory to analyze data for different relationships such as friendships and physical proximity. They are asked about relationships between people and how those relationships can be illustrated. As part of the lesson, students are challenged to find the social graph of their friends. This prepares students for the associated activity during which they simulate and analyze the spread of disease using graph theory by assuming close proximity to an infected individual causes the disease to spread.